Research Studies in Homoeopathy assembled by Robert Medhurst  BNat ND DHom

Robert Medhurst says:

"Claims are regularly made in the media and by various “authorities” that there’s no evidence for homeopathy.

Whether this declaration is made through simple ignorance, stupidity or with the deliberate intent to deceive, would make an excellent topic for investigation. Either way, the assertion that there’s no evidence for homeopathy is plainly and clearly wrong.

Shown below are (links to) abstracts from over 300 human, animal, plant and in-vitro scientific studies that attest the reality that there is indeed evidence for homeopathy, and lots of it.

This is an update of an article I wrote on this subject several years ago."

For research studies on homoeopathy:

Animal Studies Research

1. Aboiutboul R. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats. Homeopathy, 2006 January, 95, 1, 15-19. An Israeli veterinary clinic compiled case records involving Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats taken over an 8 year period. 20 cases of the condition were seen during this period and details of 15 of these cases were recorded. EGC is a syndrome characterised by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. The cases recorded involved the use of homeopathic snake remedies (the most frequently used being Lachesis) and in all 15 cases, reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.


2. Banerjee PBhattacharyya SSPathak SNaoual BBelon PKhuda-Bukhsh ARComparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic trioxide in MicePathobiology. 2008;75(3):156-70. This subject has had previous attention by Datta, Kundu and others, and in this randomised controlled trial, 6C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album (Arsenic trioxide) were given to mice prior to exposure to material doses of arsenic trioxide, as a means of determining whether or not the potentised Arsenicum album had any influence on the effects of arsenic. Mice were divided into 6 groups with 1 group receiving 6C Arsenicum album, another group receiving 30C Arsenicum album, and the remaining 4 groups receiving various control substances. Cellular and various biochemical parameters such as acid and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and succinate dehydrogenase were assessed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days from the beginning of the study. On analysis of these results it was found that both the 6C and 30C potencies of Arsenicum album provided protection against the effects of arsenic trioxide, with the 30C providing a slightly better level of protection than the 6C.


3. Bhattacharjee NPathak SKhuda-Bukhsh ARAmelioration of Carcinogen-Induced Toxicity in Mice by Administration of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Natrum Sulphuricum 200. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009, 6, 1, 65-75. Researchers at India’s University of Kalyani, expanding on work that had been previously been done in area, designed a trial to discover whether or not the homeopathic product, Nat sulph 200C was able to protect mice against the effects of liver carcinogens, when compared to controls. Using various enzyme assays and other tests to determine the effects of the product, Nat sulph 200C was found to reduce genomic and other carcinogenic effects as well as liver tumor formation caused by hepatocarcinigens, and to also increase the in-vivo levels of glutathione.


4. Berchieri A JrTurco WCPaiva JB, et al. Evaluation of isopathic treatment of Salmonella enteritidis in poultryHomeopathy. 2006 Apr, 95, 2, 94-7. 180 chickens were divided into 4 groups. 2 of these groups were given pre-treatment with placebo and 2 were given different pre-treatment with preparations of a homeopathic nosode made from an antibiotic resistant strain of Salmonella enterica (Enteritidis) at a 30X potency, over a 10 day period. On day 17 the chickens were challenged with a culture of the same species of Salmonella from which the nosode was made. Cloacal swabs taken twice daily from the chickens at this point revealed that the birds that received the nosode showed a reduction in the growth of the bacteria compared to those given placebo.


5. Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in miceIndian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004, Jul, 42, 7, 698-714. In this study, groups of mice were given substances that would normally be expected to induce the formation of liver cancer. At the same time, selected groups of these mice were given either homeopathic Chelidonium in 30C or 200C potencies or a placebo control. Both potencies of chelidonium provided a significant protective effect against the formation of liver cancers and favourably modulated some of the haematological markers normally associated with hepatotoxicity.


6. Biswas SJPathak SBhattacharjee NDas JKKhuda-Bukhsh AREfficacy of the potentized homeopathic drug, Carcinosin 200, fed alone and in combination with another drug, Chelidonium 200, in amelioration of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):839-54. Mice suffering from liver cancers were given either homeopathic Carcinosin 200C, or a combination of Carcinosn 200C and Chelidonium 200C over a period of 120 days, and the ability of these to ameliorate the cancers was compared to the effects of potentised alcohol over the same period of time. After the results were analysed it was found that both of the homeopathic remedies were effective in ameliorating these cancers. In addition, they were both individually effective in protecting against the development of any further hepatocarcinogenesis and the combination of the 2 homeopathic medicines were slightly more so.


7. Cazin JC, Cazin M, Gaborit JL, et al. A Study of the Effect of Decimal and Centessimal Dilutions of Arsenic on the Retention and Mobilisation of Arsenic in the Rat. Human Toxicol, 1987, 6, 315-320. Radioactively labelled arsenious anhydride was administered to 60 rats. The rats were then given various homeopathic potencies (10X to 30X and 5C to 15C) of arsenicum album or a potentised water control. All of the potencies successfully increased the excretion rate of the radio-labelled arsenious anhydride when compared with the control, with the highest level of excretion being produced by the 14X and 7C potencies.


8. Chakrabarti J, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Cytogenetical Effects of Sonication in Mice and their Modulations by Actinomycin D and a Homeopathic drug, Arnica 30Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2001, December, 39, 12, 1235-42. Mice were exposed to ultrasonication (high frequency shaking) and assessed for the effects of the unltrasonication after the administration of either Arnica 30 or Actinomycin D. These interventions were assessed against controls for parameters such as chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly and micronucleated erythrocytes. In comparison the control mice, the mice that were given Arnica 30, had appreciably reduced effects from the ultrasonication, indicating that Arnica 30 can ameliorate the cellular and subcellular damage resulting from this form of physical trauma.


9. Chaudhuri SVarshney JP Clinical management of babesiosis in dogs with homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200CHomeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):90-4. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease suffered by dogs. It’s associated with infestation by Babesia gibsoni and is normally transmitted by ticks. In this clinical case comparison the effects of Crotalus horridus 200C on dogs suffering from this condition were compared with the effects of the standard pharmaceutical treatment, diminazine aceturate. At 18 days after the medications were given results were assessed and on the clinical scores for the various symptoms produced by the dogs in response to the protozoa, it was found that Crotalus horridus 200C provided the same level of clinical recovery from the illness as did diminazine aceturate.


10. Datta SMallick PBukhsh AREfficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdosesComplement Ther Med. 1999 Sep;7(3):156-63. This study, carried out at the University of Kalyani in India’s West Bengal, was part of an ongoing series of trials looking at the use of homeopathically potentised arsenic to protect against the effects of exposure to material doses of arsenic, this latter being a serious health issue in several parts of India and elsewhere. The efficacy of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C have already been demonstrated to be effective against the toxicity from arsenic in previous experiments and in this particular study, the influence of the DNA transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, on the protective effects of the homeopathic medicines was assessed. Compared to controls it was found that the use of the actinomycin D did inhibit the protective effects of Arsenicum album 30C and 200C against arsenic toxicity.


11. Datta SSMallick PPRahman Khuda-Bukhsh AAComparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course studyBMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:9. In a similar study to that described above, researchers again tested the hypothesis that the homeopathically potentised version of a potentially toxic substance could protect against the effects of the substance from which it’s derived. In this case, the protective effects of homeopathic Cadmium sulph 30C and 200C were used in an attempt to control the genotoxic effects of cadmium in mice exposed to this element. When the results of this study were analysed it was found that the homeopathic medicine did provide a statistically significant protective action against the effects of cadmium.


12. Daurat VDorfman PBastide MImmunomodulatory activity of low doses of interferon alpha,beta in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 1988;42(3):197-206. This was a placebo controlled study designed to ascertain what effects, if any, divided doses of interferon alpha,beta, potentised to 10X, had on specific immune responses of mice, in particular the cytotoxic activity of allospecific T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The authors of the study found that, compared to the controls, mice given Interferon alpha,beta 10X produced a statistically significant increase in all of the specific immune response variables measured.  


13. Day C. Stillbirth in PigsVeterinary Record, 1984, 9114, 216. 20 sows were randomly assigned to receive either homeopathic Caullophyllum 30C or placebo, to determine if the former had any affect on reducing the number of stillbirths experienced by these sows. On analysis, it was found that the sows given Caulophyllum had a stillbirth rate of 11.5%, and those given placebo had a rate of 26%, showing quite clearly that the homeopathic medicine successfully reduced the rate of stillbirths.


14. de Paula Coelho CD'Almeida VPedrazzolli-Neto MDuran-Filho CFlorio JCZincaglia LMBonamin LVTherapeutic and pathogenetic animal models for Dolichos pruriensHomeopathy. 2006 Jul, 95, 3, 136-43. This study was designed to determine the effect of various homeopathic potencies of Dolichos pruriens on artificially induced itch in laboratory rats, and also to determine if these potencies could elicit a proving effect in normal rats. In the first part of this study (performed blind) the rats with the induced itch were given ascending potencies of the remedy over a 30 day period and the results compared to placebo controls. It was found that all potencies of the remedy provided a therapeutic effect against the induced itch. In the second part of the study, also performed blind, no proving effects were seen.


15. Dos Santos ALPerazzo FFCardoso LGCarvalho JCIn vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus toxicodendronHomeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):95-101. This study was essentially designed to do 2 things; to determine which homeopathic potency of Rhus tox provides the most effective anti-inflammatory action, and to reconfirm the results of previous studies aimed at demonstrating any anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus tox. Of 6C, 12C, 30C and 200C potencies of this remedy, 6C was found to provide the highest level of activity, and, using an in-vivo inflammation model, researchers confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the remedy by interfering with inflammatory processes involving histamine, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators, when compared with controls.


16. Eizayaga FXAguejouf OBelon P, et al. Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirinPathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2005;34(1):29-34. Researchers in this controlled study attempted to determine the effects of potentised aspirin on rats exhibiting reduced platelet aggregation associated with portal hypertension. Given that material doses of aspirin are known to be associated with a reduction in platelet aggregation, one of the aims of the study was to confirm that the reverse of this would be the case with if potentised aspirin were used. The researchers did, in fact, confirm this in their results which showed that, compared to controls, Aspirin 14C normalised deficiencies in platelet aggregation in the rats involved in this study.  


17. Endler PC, et al. Pretreatment with Thyroxine 10-8 Enhances a Curative Effect of Homeopathically prepared Thyroxine 10-13 on Lowland FrogsForschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2003, 10, 137-42. In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial carried out simultaneously by 3 independent researchers, tadpoles were exposed to an equivalent of a 13X potency of thyroxine. This hormone, normally responsible for promoting metamorphosis, was found to inhibit this process when potentised into a homeopathic medicine.


18. Epstein OIPavlov IFShtark MBImprovement of Memory by Means of Ultra-Low Doses of Antibodies to S-100B AntigenEvidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006 December, 3, 4, 541-545. Antigen S-100B of nervous tissue affects the mechanisms of nervous system plasticity and memory. In this trial, 28 rats were given either a placebo, or Antigen S-100B, at a 6C potency to determine the effect of either on three learning behavioral models; inhibitory avoidance, choosing of bowls with sucrose, and feeding behavior cessation after auditory signal. For all three tasks, parameters of reproduction of the learned skills improved after per oral administration of potentiated antibodies to S-100B antigen immediately after learning when compared to placebo.


19. Graunke HEndler PCScherer-Pongratz WSpranger HFrass MLothaller HTreatment of lowland frogs from the spawn stage with homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10(-30))Scientific World Journal. 2007 Oct 22;7:1697-702. In this project, performed at the Interuniversity College for Health and Development in Graz, Austria, lowland frog spawn were exposed to thyroxine potentised to 30C to determine the effect, if any, of this remedy of the development of the spawn into 2 and then 4 legged frogs, when compared to controls. It would be normal for the development of frog spawn to be accelerated by exposure to material levels of thyroxine. In this instance, exposure to 30C thyroxine produced a statistically significant reduction in the speed of development from spawn to 4 legged lowland fogs.


20. Guajardo-Bernal G., Searcy-Bernal R., Soto-Avila J. Growth Promoting Effect of Sulphur 201C in Pigs. British Homoeopathic Journal, January, 1996, 85, 15-16. In a blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sulphur 201C was given to pregnant sows every 10 days, and extending into the feeding period after birth. By day 30 the piglets fed by the sows given the active remedy exhibited a higher final weight, mean total and daily weight gain, indicating that not only was the remedy effective, but that its effects were transmitted through the sows milk.


21. Herkovits J, Perez-Coll CS. Could Potentized Microdoses of Cadmium change the Toxicological Effect of this Heavy Metal? Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Report from the 4th Giri Symposium, 1991, June, 1, 3, 171. Toad embryos were exposed to Cadmium in 4X, 8X and 10X potencies. Either immediately or 24 hours later, the embryos were exposed to a (normally lethal) solution equivalent to 1mg/l of Cadmium. Both on immediate and delayed exposure, the potencies of cadmium exerted a statistically significant protective effect against the actions of the cadmium solution.


22. Jonas WB, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, et al. Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth? Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):343-9. This US study examined the effects of the homeopathic remedies Thuja, Sabal, Conium and Carcinosin (made from the specific prostate cancer cell line used in this trial) in vitro on prostate cancer cell cultures and in vivo on 100 rats, all of which were suffering from prostate cancer. A double blind randomised design was used for this latter part of the study. The rats were given all 4 homeopathic medicines on a sequential basis over a period of 5 weeks. The in vitro part of the study, carried out over a period of 96 hours and assessed according to tumor cell viability and gene expression, showed that the cancer cell lines were unaffected by the homeopathic medicines. When the researchers assessed the results from the in vivo aspect of the study, it was found that, compared to the controls, the rats given the homeopathic medicines showed a 23% reduction in tumor incidence and a 38% reduction in the size of prostate tumors.


23. Kumar KHSunila ESKuttan G, et al. Inhibition of chemically induced carcinogenesis by drugs used in homeopathic medicineAsian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jan-Mar;8(1):98-102. In this study, carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in India’s Kerala State, rats and mice were treated for the development of liver tumors using homeopathic Hydrastis, Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Ruta or Thuja. Assessment was made on the basis of the development of tumors and their corresponding biochemical markers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum and in liver. Of the 5 medicines tested, Ruta (in a 200C potency) and Phosphorous (in a 1M potency) provided the most benefit.  


24. Kuzeff RM, Mecheva RP, Topashka-Ancheva MN. Inhibition of (-)-propranolol hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice--a placebo-controlled randomized studyForsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004 Feb;11(1):14-9. Researchers in this trial from Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne examined the effects on toxicity from (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride of a homoeopathically prepared optical isomer version of the same substance. When used in mice prior to exposure to (S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride, a remedy made from (R)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride was found to reduce the toxicity resulting from its isomer.


25. Labrecque G., Guilleminot J. Effect of Bryonia on Experimental Arthritis in RatsBerlin Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 3, 1991, 169, (Congress Report Poster). In this study, 35 male rats suffering from arthritis were treated with placebo or 4X, 4C or 9C potencies of homeopathic Bryonia for 15 days and assessed at various stages using grip strength body weight as assessment criteria. At the end of the treatment period, all of the Bryonia potencies had improved the condition when compared to placebo, with Bryonia 4C providing the best outcomes.


26. Lingg GEndler PCFrass MLothaller HTreatment of Highland Frogs from the Two-legged stage with Homeopathically prepared Thyroxin (10-11 - 10-21)Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20;8:446-50. Researchers working in Austria conducted this study to determine the effects of thyroxine, homeopathically potentised to 11X and 21X, on the metamorphosis rates of highland frogs (Rana temporaria) when compared to controls. The assessment of the effects of these remedies was done on the basis of the number of 2 legged tadpoles that develop into frogs with 4 legs over fixed periods of time. 90 animals in all acted as the subjects in this trial. As would be expected, given that thyroxine would stimulate development, thyroxine 11X and 21X, when compared to controls, were found to suppress the development of tadpoles into frogs over the observation period.


27. Macedo SB, Ferreira LR, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy. 2004 Apr;93(2):84-7. Researchers in this study evaluated the protective effect of Arnica 6C on the acute inflammatory effects in mice of carregeenin and the chronic inflammatory effects of Nystatin. Arnica was given prior to the induction of both forms of inflammation and it was found to provide a protective effect against Nystatin, but not carrageenin induced inflammation.


28. MacLaughlin BWGutsmuths BPretner E, et al. Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal modelsIntegr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):362-72.To confirm the effectiveness of the homeopathic treatment of prostate cancer, the researchers in this trial assessed the effects of the homeopathic medicines Sabal serrulata, Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis against PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell cultures and against the growth of prostate tumors in mice. Sabal reduced the proliferation of the PC-3 cell line by 33% in 72 hours and the DU-145 cell line by 23% in 24 hours. Compared to controls, Sabal also had a statistically significant effect on the tumors suffered by mice. The homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis showed no beneficial effect on the proliferation of the cell lines or tumors observed in this study.


29. Mallick P, Mallick JC, Guha B, Khuda-Bukhsh AR Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in miceBMC Complement Altern Med. 2003 Oct 22;3(1):7. In this study, Indian researchers using mice as a model for the management of human arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater in rural India, assessed the toxicity from arsenic in mice pretreated with homoeopathic Arsenicum album 30C and 200C. When compared to controls, the homoeopathic remedies were found to reduce experimentally induced arsenic toxicity. 


30. Mathie RTHansen LElliott MFHoare JOutcomes from homeopathic prescribing in veterinary practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot studyHomeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):27-34. In this cohort study, 8 veterinarians trained in homeopathy collected clinical case outcome data over a 6 month period for animals treated by them using homeopathic medicines. The records for 767 consecutive patients were collected and the results analysed via an owner- assessed 7-point scale which compared the condition before and after homeopathic treatment. These patients consisted of 547 dogs, 155 cats, 50 horses, 5 rabbits, 4 guinea-pigs, 2 birds, 2 goats, 1 cow, and 1 tortoise. The results from 539 cases were amenable to analysis and from these an improvement was seen in 79.8% of the animals, 6.1% of animals experienced a deterioration of their condition and 11.7% had no response to treatment.


31. Oberbaum M, Weissman Z, Bentwich Z. Treatment of Murine SLE by Idiotype IsotherapyBerlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Congress Report, 1991, June, 1, 3, 168. Using the knowledge that Systemic Lupus Erythrematosis (SLE) is induced by anti-DNA idiotype 16/6, homoeopathic potencies were made of this material and it was administered to mice suffering from SLE. When compared to controls, 100% of the mice treated with the 30X potency of the idiotype had a positive response to the treatment.


32. Pathak SKumar Das JBiswas SKhuda-Bukhsh ARProtective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in miceMol Cell Biochem. 2006 Apr;285(1-2):121-31. The researchers in this study, which was carried out at the University of Kalyani in India’s West Bengal, used 210 mice in an experiment to determine the protective effect of Lycopodium 30C against the carcinogenic effects of p-dimethyl amino azo benzene and phenobarbital. When assessed using chomosomal aberrations as well as several morphological and biochemical parameters at 120 days from the beginning of the experiment, it was confirmed that Lycopodium 30C not only exhibited a protective effect, but also a restorative effect against the action of p-dimethyl amino azo benzene and phenobarbital.


33.Pedalino C.M.V., Perazzo F.F., Carvalho J.C.T., Matinho K.S., Massoco C. de O, Bonamin L.V. Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitisHomeopathy, 2004, 93, 193-198. 36 mice with experimentally induced peritonitis were given either echinacea angustifolia 4X, a combination of belladonna and echinacea in mixed homeopathic potencies, a combination of echinacea in mixed potencies , 2 separate combinations of belladonna in mixed potencies, or a control substance, and their progress was monitored over time. Outcomes were measured using polymorphnuclear cell migration, mononuclear cell percentages, degenerate leucocyte proportions and phagocytosis characteristics. All of the homeopathic test substances produced positive outcomes with the belladonna and echinacea potency combination providing the maximal increase in polymorphnuclear cell migration and phagocytosis. 


34. Rajkumar RSrivastava SKYadav MCVarshney VPVarshney JPKumar HEffect of a Homeopathic complex on oestrus induction and hormonal profile in anoestrus cowsHomeopathy. 2006 Jul, 95, 3, 131-5. From a group of 12 anoestrus cows, 6 were selected to receive treatment with a combination of homeopathic medicines, given as 15 pills twice daily for 10 days. The remaining 6 cows acted as untreated controls. The treatment was effective in inducing oestrus in all of the 6 treated cows with an average of 1 conception per 1.83 services. In addition, the researchers found that oestradiol levels in the treated cows almost doubled from pre-treatment levels. Treatment results were seen at a mean interval of 27.5+/-5.3 days.


35. Reis LSPardo PEOba EKronka Sdo NFrazatti-Gallina NMMatricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. J Vet Sci. 2006 Jun;7 (2):189-92. In this study, 60 Nelore calves were randomly assigned to receive either Chamomilla 12C or no Chamomilla 12C in their feed. Following this they were subjected to short periods of handling stress after which blood samples were taken to assess their cortisol levels. After the results from the 2 groups had been compared, it was found the calves given Chamomilla 12C had significantly lower levels of blood cortisol than those that did not, indicating that they were better able to deal with stress as a result of ingestion of the homeopathic medicine.


36. Ruiz- Vega G, Perez- Ordaz L, Proa- Flores P, Aguilar- Diaz Y. An Evaluation of Coffea cruda effect on Rats. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, 122-126. This study tested the effects of Coffea 30C versus placebo on the sleep patterns of rats assessed using EEG readings. The results showed a statistically significant effect consistent with increased sleeping activity in those rats given the active medicine.


37. Ruiz-Vega G, Perez-Ordaz L, Leon-Hueramo O, Cruz-Vasquez E, Sanchez-Diaz N. Comparitive Effect of Coffea cruda Potencies on Rats. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 80-84. 30C and 200C potencies of Coffea cruda and caffeine were administered orally to rats, and EEG data from the parietal region recorded. When compared with control animals, Coffea 30C and 200C were associated with changes in EEG patterns that were consistent with increased sleep activity.


38. Ruiz-Vega G,  Perez-Ordaz L, Cotez-Galvan L, Juarez-GFM. A Kinetic Approach to Caffeine-  Coffea cruda Interaction. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 19-29. In this blinded and controlled study, rats were given caffeine and then Coffea 30C in an effort to determine what effects, if any, the Coffea 30C had on sleep characteristics. The homoeopathic remedy was found to increase the intensity of sleep in the rats when compared with the effects of the control used.


39. Ruiz-Vega GPoitevin BPerez-Ordaz L. Histamine at high dilution reduces spectral density in delta band in sleeping rats. Homeopathy. 2005 Apr, 94, 2, 86-91. Histamine in material doses is a central nervous system stimulant operating via H1 receptors. The researchers in this study examined the effects of histamine in 30C homeopathic potency on the sleep patterns of rats. Using the spectral density of the delta band in the sleep electroencephalogram to measure the effects of the remedy, which is higher during periods on non-REM sleep, researchers found that histamine 30C produced an increase in wakefulness when compared to controls.  


40. Sakakura CENeto RSBellucci MWenzel AScaf GMarcantonio E JrInfluence of Homeopathic Treatment with Comfrey on Bone Density around Titanium Implants: A Digital Subtraction Radiography Study in RatsClinical Oral Implants Research. 2008 Jun;19(6):624-8. This controlled trial looked at populations of rats to discover what influence, if any, Symphytum 6C had on improving the density of bone around recent titanium implants. Implants were given to 2 groups of 24 rats; one group was given 10 drops of Symphytum 6C per day and the other was given a similar amount of a control substance. Animals were radiologically assessed for bone density around the implants at the beginning of the study period, and again at 7, 14 and 28 days. Radiographs taken at day 7 showed an increase in bone density over controls, although no statistically significant effect was seen for the radiographs taken on days 14 and 28.


41. Sato DYO, Wal R, de Oliveira CC, Cattaneo RI, Malvezzi M, Gabardo J, Buchi D. de F. Histopathological and immunophenotyping studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a complex homeopathic medicationHomeopathy, 2005, Jan, 94, 1, 26-32. 55 mice with experimentally induced sarcomas were given placebo or a homeopathic combination product, and observed daily over a period of 21 days. Compared to those receiving placebo, the mice being given the homeopathic combination showed a reduction in tumor size, an increased infiltration by lymphoid cells, granulation tissue and fibrosis surrounding the tumor, all of which are indicative of a positive response to the medicine. 


42. Sukul A., Sinhabau S.P., Sukul N.C., Reduction of Alcohol Induced Sleep time in albino mice by Potentised Nux vomica prepared with 90% EthanolBritish Homoeopathic Journal, 88, 1999, 58-61. In a controlled experiment to determine the effect of Nux vomica 30C on alcohol induced sleep, mice that had sleep induced via an injection of 25% ethanol were given a control substance or Nux vomica 30C. Nux vomica 30C prepared in 90% ethanol was effective in reducing sleep time.


43. Sukul NC, Ghosh S, Sinhababu SP, Sukul A. Strychnos nux vomica extract and its ultra high dilution reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2001, April, 7, 2, 187-193. In an attempt to determine the effect of homeopathic Nux vomica on alcoholism, potentially alcoholic laboratory rats housed in the Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, India, after being divided into 4 groups, were given a choice of drinking from bottles containing either 20% ethanol in water or plain water. The rats were given diluent, or strychnine, or nux vomica tincture, or nux vomica 30C. When compared to the control group (diluent only) both the nux vomica tincture and nux vomica 30C groups of rats showed a distinct aversion to the 20% ethanol drinking bottle. 


44. Sukul NCGhosh SSinhababu SPReduction in the number of infective Trichinella spiralis larvae in mice by use of homeopathic drugsForsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Aug, 12, 4, 202-5. Trichinellosis, a disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, which occurs in humans and animals, was the subject of this trial. Mice infected with this organism were given Podophyllum as a homeopathic mother tincture, Cina 30C, Santonin 30C, or ethanol 30C as a control substance. After 120 days the mice were examined for the presence of the T. spiralis larvae and this was compared with the larval load before therapy. At 120 days the mice given Podophyllum had their larval load reduced by 61% when compared to the control, those given Santonin had a reduction of 81% and the mice given Cina had a reduction of 84%.


45. Varshney JP, Naresh R. Evaluation of a homeopathic complex in the clinical management of udder diseases of riverine buffaloes. Homeopathy. 2004 Jan;93(1):17-20. Indian researchers involved in this trial developed a homoeopathic complex against mastitis and tested it, without placebo controls, with 102 riverine buffaloes suffering from various levels of mastitis. The treatment was deemed to be 80 to 97% effective against the disease, depending on the severity of the condition.


46. Varshney JPNaresh RComparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows. Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 2, 81-5. Bovine mastitis is a serious problem in India and for many Indian dairy farmers, standard veterinary treatment, because of its cost, is not a viable option. With this in mind, researchers treated 96 lactating dairy cattle suffering from mastitis using a homeopathic combination product (Group A). These were compared with a group of the same number of lactating dairy cattle suffering from mastitis that were treated with antibiotics (Group B). The treatment outcomes, duration and costs were then compared. Cattle from Group A had a successful treatment response rate of 86.6%, a mean time to recovery of 7.7 days and a total cost of (US) 47 cents. Cattle from Group B had a successful treatment response rate of 59.2%, a mean time to recovery of 4.5 days and a total cost of (US) $3.28.


47. Varshney JPClinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic Belladonna 200C: a case seriesHomeopathy. 2007 January, 96, 1, 46-48. In this uncontrolled study, 10 dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy were given 3-4 drops of homeopathic Belladonna 200C during the seizure phase orally at 15min intervals until the seizure activity was reduced, and this was continued then four times daily. Four dogs with head shaking syndrome in addition to seizures were given an additional Cocculus 6C, 3-4 drops orally weekly for 3 months. As a result of this therapy, the numbers of fits reduced to 2-3 during first 2 weeks post-therapy and then became occasional in next 2 weeks. With continuation of Belladonna therapy, no fits were observed during 2-7 months follow-up. In two cases seizures reappeared within 15-25 days of cessation of therapy. Belladonna therapy was resumed and seizure control was again achieved. Owners were advised to continue the therapy at least twice daily until no fits occurred for at least 2 months.


48. Varshney JPChaudhuri SAtrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs and its management with homeopathic Digitalis--two case reportsHomeopathy. 2007 Oct;96(4):270-2. Homeopathically prepared Digitalis 6C is a common prescription for those suffering from atrial tachycardia. This paper reports on the effects of Digitalis 6C, given at the Division of Medicine of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute in Izatnagar in India, to a Labrador dog and a German Shepherd dog, both of which were suffering from atrial paroxysmal tachycardia. Both dogs were given 4 drops of the medicine 4 times daily and their ECGs were assessed after 7 days of continuous treatment. At this point it was found that the heart rates of both dogs was stabilised and synchronized, with atrial and ventricular electrical activity appearing to be functioning normally.


49. Viriato EP, Bianchetti ES, dos Santos KC, Vaz AF, Campos RMV, Pereira AP, Bezerra RM,  Perazzo FF, Carvalho JCT. Study of high dilutions of copaiba oil on inflammatory process. Int J High Dilution Res 2009; 8(26): 9-149. This trial was a collaborative effort by researchers from several Brazilian universities and was designed to test the hypothesis that Copaiba oil, homeopathically potentised to 30C from either mother tincture or triturate, is as effective as Indomethacin in reducing inflammation induced by carageenan, and also to determine if it was capable of influencing tissue granulation when compared to conventional treatment. The 30C potency from mother tincture and triturate both reduced inflammation by up to 73%, and Indomethacin reduced inflammation by 55%. In addition, 6C potencies of Copaiba oil were able to produce a 48% inhibition of granulation, compared to a 57% reduction from the use of Dexamethasone.


50. Williamson AV, Mackie WL, Crawford WJ, Rennie B. A Trial of Sepia 200British Homeopathic Journal, 84, 1, January 1995, 14-20. Using a randomised placebo control method, Sepia 200C was assessed for its ability to increase reproductive performance in a herd of Fresian cross diary cows. Sepia increased all parameters measured.


51. Marzotto MConforti AMagnani PZanolin MEBellavite PEffects of Ignatia amara in mouse behavioural modelsHomeopathy. 2012 Jan;101(1):57-67. This University of Verona study adds to previous work done on anxiety in mice and in this case used various potencies of homeopathically prepared Ignatia amara in potentially stressful experimental scenarios. Groups of 8 mice were given a negative (solvent) or positive control (diazepam) substance or Ignatia 4C, 5C, 7C, 9C and 30C and subjected to 5 repetitions of the light-dark test or open-field test in a randomised and blinded manner. Mice were then assessed for their levels of anxiety and capacity for locomotion. Compared to controls a statistically significant association was seen between the Ignatia potencies (particularly the 9C potency) and a reduction in anxiety, without a significant impact on locomotion.


52. Bellavite PConforti AMarzotto MMagnani PCristofoletti MOlioso DZanolin METesting homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studiesEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:954374. In this data analysis carried out by researchers from the Department of Pathology and Diagnostics at Italy’s University of Verona, an assessment was made of previous work using homeopathically prepared Gelsemium against anxiety in mice, and comparing various homeopathic potencies of this material with solvent (negative) controls and diazepam (positive) controls. An analysis of this pooled data confirmed the original findings of both studies of a statistically significant association between homeopathically prepared Gelsemium and a reduction in the anxiety experienced by mice when confronted with a potentially anxiety producing situation.


53. Neumann SStolt PBraun GHellmann KReinhart EEffectiveness of the homeopathic preparation Zeel compared with Carprofen in dogs with osteoarthritisJ Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2011 Jan-Feb;47(1):12-20. Workers from the Institute of Veterinary Medicine in Germany’s University of Goettingen carried out this study to determine what effects, if any, could be produced by a combination of homeopathically prepared materials to relieve the effects of osteoarthritis in dogs, compared the effects of Carprofen, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. 68 dogs suffering from clinically determined osteoarthritis were assigned to receive either the homeopathic combination, or Carprofen for 56 days. Assessments were made by treating veterinarians and owners at baseline, at 28 days and 56 days, of lameness, stiffness of movements, and pain on palpation. After accumulating and analysing the results it was shown that the interventions were equal in their effectiveness.


54. Hielm-Björkman ATulamo RMSalonen HRaekallio MEvaluating complementary therapies for canine osteoarthritis--Part II: a homeopathic combination preparation (Zeel). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Dec;6(4):465-71. In an extension to previous work done in this area, researchers at Finland’s University of Helsinki used a randomized, double-controlled and double-blinded clinical trial model to compare the effects of a combination of homeopathically prepared materials with that of placebo for the relief of the symptoms of osteoarthritis suffered by dogs. 44 dogs were randomly assigned to receive either the homeopathic combination or one of two control substances for 8 weeks. Regular observations made of mobility, force plate variables, chronic pain index and pain and locomotion via visual analogue scales (VASs) as well as the intake of extra non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. On analysis of the results, a significant association was found between the homeopathic combination and a reduction in 4 of the 6 variables measured, and these were the variables predominantly associated with chronic orthopaedic pain.


55. Bellavite PMagnani PZanolin EConforti AHomeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel EnvironmentsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:362517. In yet more interesting work on Gelsemium, researchers from the Department of Morphological Biomedical Sciences at the University of Verona in Italy, build on previous studies to further confirm the role of homeopathically prepared Gelsemium on anxiety. Once again, mice were exposed to potentially anxiety-producing situations such as the light-dark test and open field test after being given various homeopathically prepared 5C, 7C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium, or a positive (Diazepam) or negative (solvent) control substance. When compared to the controls, the application of all of the Gelsemium potencies were associated with an improvement in some aspect of anxiety as produced by the test environments.


56. Sunila ES, Kuttan G, Preethi KC, Kuttan REffect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):390-4. Indian researchers operating at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala State added to previous work done in this area by investigating the antitumour and antimetastatic capacity of 3 different homeopathically prepared substances on mice, when compared to controls. Mice suffering from specific tumors were exposed to the homeopathic preparations Ruta graveolens 200C, Hydrastis canadensis 200C, Hydrastis canadensis 1M, Thuja 1M and Lycopodium 1M. When compared to controls it was found that the 200C potencies were associated with an increase in the lifespan of tumour bearing mice by up to 69.4%. A strong association was also found between the use of these remedies and a reduction in solid tumour volume of up to 95.8% after 31 days of treatment. The use of Hydrastis 1M was associated with a complete disappearance of tumors in 60% of the mice and the use of Thuja 1M and Lycopodium 1M were also associated with significant reductions in metastatic activity.


57. Klocke PIvemeyer SButler GMaeschli AHeil F. A randomized controlled trial to compare the use of homeopathy and internal Teat Sealers for the prevention of mastitis in organically farmed dairy cows during the dry period and 100 days post-calving. Homeopathy. 2010 Apr;99(2):90-8. Mastitis in organically farmed dairy cows is a major issue since, by definition, organically farmed animals cannot be given antibiotics. To deal with this, Swiss scientists from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture in Frick sought to come up with a solution using a herd specific homeopathic mixture in cows affected by mastitis. 102 cows were randomly assigned to receive teat sealing via Orbeseal, a sterile, non-antibiotic inflammatory infusion in the form of a viscous paste, the homeopathic mixture or no treatment. All cows were checked for clinical mastitis and somatic cell count for the first 100 days post-calving (milk from cows infected with mastitis generally have higher total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts than milk from uninfected cows). On analysis it was shown that the herd-specific homeopathic was effective in increasing the number of animals with normal milk secretion compared to untreated controls.


58. Gazim ZC, Ferreira FBP, da Silva AV, Bolognese KC, Merlin E, Messa V, de Jesus RA, Coutinho CA, da Silva LCM. Efficiency of tick biotherapic on the control of infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Dutch dairy cows.  Int J High Dilution Res. 2010; 9(33):156-164. This Brazilian work was done to investigate alternatives to conventional pesticides for the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) in cattle. To do this, 34 Dutch dairy cows infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were given either mineral salt alone or mineral salt impregnated with a 12C homoepathic preparation of the organism daily for 6 months, then a 30C preparation every second day for a further 22 months. At this point, engorged female ticks were collected from both groups, counted and weighed. In vitro tests were carried out to assess mass of ticks; egg mass; egg-hatching rate; and reproductive efficiency. After comparing these results from both groups it was shown that the use of the homeopathically prepared tick was associated with a significant decrease in the mass of engorged females, deposition and hatching rate of eggs, and a decrease of the reproductive efficiency of these ticks.


59. Vaz AF, Campos RMV, dos Santos KC, Viriato EP, Carvalho JCT. Anxiolytic effect of the homeopathic complex TepeexInt J High Dilution Research 8, 28, 91-99 (2009). This trial, carried out at the Universidade Federal do Amapá in Brazil, was designed to test the effects of a homeopathic combination product known as Tepeex, on anxiety and depression in rats, when compared with the effects of a negative control (water) and a positive controls (diazepam, amfepramone chloride). The study were carried out over 30 days using a maze test, swimming test, open field test and Rotarod test as the primary means of assessment. At the end of the study, an analysis of the results was conducted and it was found that the use of the homeopathic combination product was associated with an anxiolytic effect. The combination showed no evidence of an inhibition of motor coordination. 


60. de Araújo FRde Castro CMSevero MSDiniz Mde FViana MTEvêncio LBEffect of Mercurius solubilis on the bacteriological response in the alveolitis process in ratsHomeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):160-4. In more Brazilian research into homeopathy, scientists from the Microbiology Division of the Federal University of Pernambuco embarked on a randomised and blinded study to assess the bacteriological response in rats with alveolitis treated with homeopathically prepared mercury (Merc sol 12C).  Rats suffering from bacterial alveolitis were exposed to Merc sol 12C, water or ethanol and observed at days 6, 15 and 21 from baseline. After the results were collected and analysed it was found that the rats exposed to Merc sol 12C had bacterial counts that were the closest to what could normally be expected to be seen in healthy rats.


61. Rosas-Landa V, Garcia M, Rodriguez R. Evidence for Homeopathic Vaccination? Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatia, 1997, 30, 5-10. This Mexican research describes the process and outcomes of two pilot studies done to evaluate the immunological response in rabbits to homeopathic preparations made from an oral mycobacterial antigen. In the first study, 1C to 30C homeopathic preparations of the antigen were given to rabbits in their drinking water for one month and assessed against positive and negative controls. All of the homeopathic potencies were associated with the production by the rabbits of antimycobacterial antibody. In the second trial, a tuberculin reaction was assessed after oral administration of the 30C homeopathic potency, and this compared to the reaction to the conventional inoculation. The reaction to the homeopathic potency was comparable to that caused by the conventional inoculate.


62. Jonas WB, Dillner DK. Protection of Mice from Tularemia Infection with Ultra-Low, Serial Agitated Dilutions Prepared from Francisella tularensis-Infected Tissue. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 35–52, 2000 0892-3310/00. In this study, researchers investigated the possibility that homeopathically prepared potencies made from the tissues from mice infected with Francisella tularensis (nosode), the organism associated with tularaemia, had the capacity to protect uninfected mice from this pathogen. Using 15 repetitions, mice were pretreated with various potencies of the nosode or a control substance for 1 month and then exposed to the pathogen and assessments made of the extent of the response to it. On analysis, it was found that all potencies of the nosode were associated with protection against the pathogen and it was also noted that two of the potencies were associated with the production of anti-tularemia IgG antibody during the pretreatment stage of the trial.


63. Oberholzer HMPretorius EInvestigating lung remodelling in Modul8 treated BALB/c asthmatic animalsMicron. 2009 Dec;40(8):775-82. This trial was carried out at the faculty of Health Sciences in South Africa’s University of Pretoria and was performed to investigate what effect, if any, a specific homeopathic combination product (Module8) had against hydrocortisone, compared to a control, in mice suffering from atopic asthma. Assessment was made via the analysis of tissue structures and the numbers of eosinophils found on bronchial lavage before and after treatment. On analysis of the results noted at the end of the trial, the use of hydrocortisone and the homeopathic formula were both associated with a significant reduction in tissue structure changes and eosinophil count.


64. Bhattacharjee NPathak SKhuda-Bukhsh ARAmelioration of carcinogen-induced toxicity in mice by administration of a potentized homeopathic drug, Natrum sulphuricum 200Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Mar;6(1):65-75. In this study, scientists from the University of Kalyani in India examined the possibility of a protective effect from the homeopathically prepared remedy Nat sulph 200C, in mice with liver damage induced by P-dimethylaminoazobenzene and Phenobarbital. To do this, mice affected by these hepatotoxic agents were given Nat sulph 200 or various control substances and then assessed at days 7, 15, 30,. 60, 90 and 120 for cytogenetic changes such as chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index, sperm head anomaly liver enzymes and glutathione assay. Over these observational periods it was shown that the use of Nat sulph 200C was associated with a reduced impact on all of the parameters measured.


65. Welles SUEndler PCScherer-Pongratz WSuanjak-Traidl EWeber SSpranger HFrass MLothaller H. Pretreatment with thyroxin 10(-8) and the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin 10(-30) on highland frogs--a multi-researcher studyForsch Komplementmed. 2007 Dec;14(6):353-7. This builds on previous work done in this area that showed that homeopathically potentised thyroxin slowed the rate of metamorphosis in highland frogs. In this study, tadpoles were pretreated with a 10 to the minus 8 molar solution of Thyroxin, which should be expected to stimulate metamorphosis. They were then exposed to either a homeopathically prepared Thyroxin 30X or a negative control. Four sets of these experiments were carried out, each by a different researcher. On analysis of the results it was found that the tadpoles that had been exposed to the Thyroxin 30X had a slower rate of metamorphosis than controls, which is consistent with previous findings and does not support the notion that pretreatment with a 10 to the minus 8 molar solution of Thyroxine alters this outcome.


66. Sukul ASarkar PSinhababu SPSukul NC. Altered solution structure of alcoholic medium of potentized Nux vomica underlies its antialcoholic effectBr Homeopath J. 2000 Apr;89(2):73-7. Researchers from the Department of Zoology at Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, India explored the notion that homeopathically prepared Nux vomica, in 30C, 200C and 1M homeopathic potencies, could accelerate the recovery from alcohol intoxication. This adds to previous work done in this area and was carried out using a controlled crossover trial design on mice that were exposed to ethanol and then given Nux vomica 30C, 200C, 1M or one of three control substances.  When compared to the controls, it was shown that the use all of the Nux vomica potencies was associated with a statistically significant reduction in ethanol intoxication.


67. Silva NL, Moletta JL, Minho AP, Filippsen LF. Use of biotherapic in the control of natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study. Int J High Dilution Research, 7, 22, 36-38, (2008). Scientists at the Agronomic Institute of Parana in Brazil conducted this research to assess the effects of a combination of 12C homeopathically potentised parasites on infestation in cattle by the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. This mixture included a 12C homeopathic potency of Boophilus microplus. 27 tick infested cattle were randomly assigned to receive the homeopathic mixture, or a standard veterinary drug-based dip used for this condition, or were given no treatment. The cattle were assessed for ticks at baseline and then every 14 days. On analysis of these assessments it was found that the homeopathically potentised mixture provided the same level of relief from ticks as the standard drug-based dip.


68. Rocha MPS, Soares FS, Martini LC, Bonamin LV. Behavior of rats treated with Rhus toxicodendron 200cH. Int J High Dilution Research, 7, 22, 3-6 (2008). The object of this exercise was to determine the effects of homeopathically prepared Rhus tox 200C and diazepam, on hyperactivity and hypoactivity in mice in open field tests, compared to controls. Mice were classified into hyperactive or hypoactive groups and assigned to receive Rhus tox 200C, diazepam or a water control, and their activities in an open field environment observed before and after treatment. Upon analysis it was found that Rhus tox 200C and diazepam both produced statistically significant reductions in hyperactivity when compared to controls. None of the interventions produced a significant effect on hypoactivity.


69. Fontes OL, Chaudr MV, Alves MIF, Gutierrez MA, Foltran FP, de Carvalho GGA. A Study Comparing Different Doses of Arsenicum album 6CH on Rats Intoxicated with Arsenic. Int J High Dilution Research, 5, 17 (2006), 9-13. This study was carried out with the intention of determining what effect, if any, the dose volume of homeopathically prepared Arsenicum album 6C has on the capacity of rats to eliminate arsenic in the form of sodium arseniate. Oral doses of 2, 5 and 10 drops of Arsenicum 6C were given to arsenic intoxicated rats daily for 30 days and their urine was measured daily for arsenic via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On assessment, all of the three different drop volumes were equally effective at causing an increased elimination of arsenic.


70. Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Boujedaini N, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.  Evidences of Protective Potentials of Microdoses of Ultra-high Diluted Arsenic Trioxide in Mice Receiving Repeated Injections of Arsenic TrioxideEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011: 391752. Published online 2011 February 14. This study was undertaken to determine if Arsenicum Album 200C has hepatoprotective effect in mice subjected to repeated exposure to arsenic trioxide. Arsenic intoxicated mice were divided into: (i) those receiving Arsenicum Album-200C daily, (ii) those receiving the same dose of diluted and succussed alcohol (Alc 200C) and (iii) another group receiving neither drug nor ASlc 200C. Two other control groups were also maintained: one fed a normal diet only and the other receiving normal diet and Alc-200C. Toxicity biomarkers such as aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, glutathione reductase, catalase, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione contents were periodically assayed’. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases of liver tissues were made at day 90 and 120. Blood glucose, haemoglobin, oestradiol and testosterone levels were also assessed. When compared to controls, the mice that were fed Arsenicum Album-200C showed less evidence of chronic arsenic exposure.


71. Bellavite PMagnani PZanolin EConforti AHomeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel EnvironmentsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011: 362517. Published online 2011 February 15. Researchers in this study looked at the effects of 5C, 7C and 30C homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium in comparison to the effects of diazepam on the behavioural characteristics of mice when challenged with potentially anxiety-producing situations such as exposure to new environments or environments where cover was limited. Using measurements from these parameters, it was determined that the use of homeopathic Gelsemium was associated with an increase in exploratory behaviour and a reduction in the fear of new environments.


72. Zacharias FGuimarães JEAraújo RRAlmeida MAAyres MCBavia MEMendonça-Lima FW. Effect of homeopathic medicines on helminth parasitism and resistance of Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Homeopathy. 2008 Jul;97(3):145-51. This Brazilian study reports the findings of a group investigating the effects of 3 homeopathically potentised substances on sheep infected with the Barber’s Pole worm (Haemonchus contortus), a pathogenic nematode common to sheep. 20 sheep were randomly assigned to receive Doramectin, a commonly used antihelminthic; homeopathically prepared Ferrum phos, Arsenicum album and Calc carb; or no treatment. Faecal and blood samples were taken 18, 38 and 68 days from baseline and these checked for evidence of the parasite. On assessment of these results an association was found between the use of the homeopathic preparations and a reduction in the presence of the parasites, leading to an improvement in vital function and weight gain. In addition, the homeopathic option was also found to be more economical than the standard antihelminthic method of management.


73. Camerlink I, Ellinger L, Bakker EJ, Lantinga EA. Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets. HomeopathyVolume 99, Issue 1, January 2010, 57-62. This work, performed by a team primarily from the Wageningen University in The Netherlands, concerns the design and outcomes of the homeopathic treatment of piglets suffering from diarrhoea associated with E. coli. 52 sows in their last month of gestation were given either placebo or a homeopathically potentised preparation of E. coli twice weekly for that month. These sows subsequently gave birth to 525 piglets; 265 from the placebo sow group and 260 from the homeopathic E. coli group and all were monitored for E. coli diarrhoea. On analysis of the results from the observations made of both groups, it was found that the piglets from the placebo group had a diarrhoeal incidence that was 6 times higher than the piglets from the homeopathic group.


74. Magnani PConforti AZanolin EMarzotto MBellavite P.  Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety-related responses in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jul;210(4):533-45. Researchers from the University of Verona in Italy carried out this trial on mice to determine whether or not any of five homeopathically potentised preparations of Gelsemium could influence the generation of anxiety. Mice were exposed to Gelsemium 4C, 5C, 7C, 9C and 30C, a positive control substance (Buspirone) or a negative control (the solvent used to produce the Gelsemium potencies) and then challenged with potentially anxiety generating situations, these being open-field tests and light-dark tests. While Gelsemium had little effect on the mice in the open-field test, it did produce a statistically significant reduction in anxiety associated with the light-dark test that was comparable to the effect produced by Buspirone, particularly the Gelsemium preparations potentised to 5C, 9C and 30C.

For research studies on homoeopathy:

We are indebted to Robert Medhurst for researching and assembling this list of homoeopathy research.

See also the page on evidence for homoeopathy on the website of the Glasgow Faculty of Homoeopathy.