Robert Medhurst says:
"Claims are regularly made in the media and by various “authorities” that there’s no evidence for homeopathy.
Whether this declaration is made through simple ignorance, stupidity or with the deliberate intent to deceive, would make an excellent topic for investigation. Either way, the assertion that there’s no evidence for homeopathy is plainly and clearly wrong.
Shown below are (links to) abstracts from over 300 human, animal, plant and in-vitro scientific studies that attest the reality that there is indeed evidence for homeopathy, and lots of it.
This is an update of an article I wrote on this subject several years ago."
For research studies on homoeopathy:
1. Albertini H, Goldberg W, Sanguy B, Toulza CL. Homeopathic treatment of dental neuralgia by Arnica and Hypericum. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 1985, 3, 126-129. Carried out at the Faculty of Medicine of Marseilles, this placebo controlled study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Arnica 7C and Hypericum 15C for people suffering from dental neuralgia. 60 people received either 4 pilules of Arnica alternated with 4 pilules of Hypericum every 4 hours or placebo administered in the same way. Pain levels were assessed over 3 days from the beginning of the trial. From this assessment it was found that 12 of the 30 people who received the placebo had a positive response to this intervention, and 23 of the 30 people given the homeopathic medicines responded positively to these.
2. Alibeu JP, Jobert J. Aconite in Post-Operative Pain and Agitation in Children, Pediatrie, 1990, 45, 7-8, 465-6. In this double blind placebo controlled trial, 50 children suffering from post-operative pain and agitation were given either Aconite or placebo. The effects of Aconite were significantly better than placebo
3. Ammerschlager H., Klein P., Weiser M., Oberbaum M. Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract - comparison of a homeopathic complex remedy with xylometazoline. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005, Feb, 12, 1,:24-31. In a multi-centre, controlled, cohort study, 739 people suffering from rhinitis or sinusitis were given either xylometazoline (a drug commonly used for nasal congestion, sinusitis and hay fever) or a homeopathic combination. Both forms of therapy provided similarly effective results.
4. Baars EW, De Bruin A. The effect of Gencydo injections on hayfever symptoms: a therapeutic causality report. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 863-9. In this study, 13 Dutch medical practitioners submitted patients (who between them had a mean history of hayfever of 9 years), for therapy involving injections of a combination homeopathic product. All but 1 patient were given the medication before the onset of the hayfever season and all were given it during the hayfever season. Of these 13, during the course of the trial 9 people found no increase in nasal and non-nasal hayfever symptoms when the hayfever season began or during it and only 1 of the 13 felt compelled to use conventional hayfever medication.
5. Baduluci S, Chirulescu Z, Chirila P, Rosca A. Zinc: Immunoglobin Relationship in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver Before and After treatment with Zincum metallicum 5C. International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects, 1993 Giri Meeting, British Homoeopathic Journal, April, 1994, 83, 84-100. 10 people suffering from Zinc deficiency as determined by atomic absorption spectrophotemetry were treated with Zincum metallicum 5C. Analysis following this treatment showed a substantial improvement in zinc levels.
6. Banerjee A, Chakrabarty SB, Karmakar SR, Chakrabarty A, Biswas SJ, Haque S, Das D, Paul S, Mandal B, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Can Homeopathy bring additional benefits to Thalassemic Patients on Hydroxyurea Therapy? Encouraging Results of a Preliminary Study. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010 March; 7(1): 129–136. In this observational study, 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who were taking hydroxyurea, were allowed to continue their use of hydroxyurea but were given one of several homeopathic medicines. The effects of this additional treatment were compared to the outcomes of another 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who used hydroxyurea alone, assessed immediately before and at 3 months after starting the homeopathic treatment. Of a range of haematological and clinical parameters, those people using the combined treatment showed an increase in levels of foetal haemoglobin over those on hydroxyurea alone, along with a reduction in serum ferritin. Where splenomegaly was present, a significant reduction in this was noted in those on the combined therapy and this group also noted an improvement in general health with a longer period allowed between blood transfusions.
7. Barnes J., Resch K-L., Ernst E. Homoeopathy for Post-Operative Ileus: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 1997, Dec, 25, 4, 628- 633. 7 separate trials examining the effects of homoeopathic treatment for post-operative ileus after abdominal or gynaecological surgery when compared with placebo, specifically, for the time to first flatus after surgery. Subsequent analysis showed that homoeopathy provided superior results to placebo.
8. Bell IR, Lewis DA, Brooks AJ, Schwartz GE, Lewis SE, Walsh BT, Baldwin CM. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 May;43(5):577-82. 53 people suffering from fibromyalgia took part in this trial, comparing individualised homoeopathic treatment to placebo. The levels of tender points and tender point pain as well as quality of life, mood and general health were assessed by the practitioners and subjects involved in the trial. 3 months after commencing treatment, all parameters were found to be improved by the use of homoeopathy when compared to placebo.
9. Belon P, Banerjee P, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, et al. Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album, alter antinuclear antibody (ANA) titre in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? I. A correlation with certain hematological parameters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar; 3 (1):99-107. To investigate whether or not potentised Arsenicum album has an effect on arsenic-induced elevations of antinuclear antibody (ANA), selected inhabitants of arsenic affected villages in India’s West Bengal were randomly assigned to receive either Arsenicum album or placebo. After 2 months of administration, it was found that not only did the remedy provide superior results in reducing the ANA titre, it also caused a correction of arsenic-induced haematological changes such as total count of red blood cells and white blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin content, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood sugar level.
10. Belon P, Banerjee A, Karmakar SR, et al. Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity? Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial. Sci Total Environ. 2007 Jul 10. This was a pilot study carried out on 25 people from an Indian village where arsenic contamination was endemic and 18 people from another Indian village without arsenic contamination. These people were randomly assigned to receive either Arsenicum album 30C or a succussed placebo control. After 2 months on either active medicine or placebo, these people had their blood and urine assessed for arsenic as well as several widely accepted toxicity biomarkers and pathological parameters related to arsenic toxicity. The use of Arsenicum album 30C had a beneficial effect on these biomarkers. It was also found to improve the appetite and general health of those people who previously exhibited signs and symptoms of arsenic toxicity.
11. Berrebi A, Parant O, Ferval F, Thene M, Ayoubi JM, Connan L, Belon P. Treatment of Pain due to Unwanted Lactation with a Homeopathic Preparation given in the Immediate Post-Partum Period. Gynecology, Obstetrics and Biological Reproduction, 2001, June, 30, 4, 353-7. 71 post- parturient women who were unwilling or unable to breast feed were divided into 2 groups, one being given a placebo and the other group being given a mixture of Apis 9C and Bryonia 9C, to determine the effects of either on lactation pain. A significant improvement was noted in the group using the mixture, when compared to those in the placebo group.
12. Bignamini M, Saruggia M, Sansonetti G. Homeopathic Treatment of Anal Fissures using Nitricum acidum Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 4/5, 286-287, December 1991. Patients using Nitricum acidum 9C once daily in a double blind placebo controlled trial found subjective relief with the medicine over the placebo.
13. Bornhoft G, Wolf U, Ammon K, et al. Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice - summarized health technology assessment. Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006;13 Suppl 2:19-29. This was an effectiveness and safety study on homeopathy carried out for the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health. Using Internet-based resources, manual search and contact with experts, and assessed according to internal and external validity criteria, investigators found that the trend was in favour of a therapeutic benefit from homeopathic intervention. In addition, it was stated by the authors of the study that, “…effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence and professional and adequate application be regarded as safe. “
14. Brigo B, Serpelloni G, Homoeopathic Treatment of Migraine Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1, 2, March, 1991, 98-106. In this randomised, placebo controlled double blind study, 60 people suffering from migraine were treated using constitutional homoeopathy over a period of 4 months. Those patients in the control group experienced a reduction in migraine frequency from 9.9 attacks per month to 7.9 per month, while those in the treatment group reduced their monthly attack rate from 10 to between 1.8 and 3 per month.
15. Cairo J, Elliot BE, Barnouin J, Fleites P, Araoz A, Morales M, Verdura T, Sanchez M, Serrano C, Alvarez JL, Veillard JJ. Homeopathy in Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy: An Open Clinical Trial. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 150-157. In this uncontrolled trial, 15 people suffering from optic endemic neuropathy (group 1) and 16 people suffering from peripheral epidemic neuropathy (group 2) were given homeopathic Carbon sulph and homeopathic Tabacum for 30 days. The subjects were assessed for improvement in neurologic and ophthalmologic tests on commencement and again at 90 days after commencement of the trial. Those in group 1 experienced an averaged improvement of 73% and group 2 of 12.5%.
16. Campistranous- Lavout JL., et al. Hypertension Trial. Boletin Mexicano, 1999, 32, 42- 47. 68 people suffering from mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled in a double-blind randomised clinical trial comparing individualised homoeopathic therapy with placebo. Successful results were obtained with 82% of those using homoeopathy compared with 57% of those using placebo.
17. Castellsague API, Sturza CM. Retrospective Study in Asthma, Revista Homeopatica AMBH, 1998, 37, 5-21. In this multi-centre retrospective (uncontrolled) analysis, 196 people were treated for asthma with homoeopathy. Of the 196, 54 were claimed to have been cured and improvement was seen in a further 117.
18. Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, Lima LU, Lugon JR. Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):177-81. Pruritis, commonly experienced by those undergoing haemodialysis, was treated in 20 subjects under double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial conditions comparing individualised homoeopathic treatment to placebo. Assessments were made at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days treatment, and after collating the results, researchers found that homoeopathic management reduced pruritis by 49%. The majority of the reduction in pruritis had occurred by day 30.
19. Chapman EH, Weintraub RJ, Milburn MA, Pirozzo TO, Woo E. Homoeopathic Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, 14, 6, December 1999, 521-42. In a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial involving 60 subjects and a 4 month follow-up period, homoeopathy provided significant improvement in parameters using measures such as “Difficulty with Situations”, “Symptoms Rating Scale” and a “Participation in Daily Activities” scale.
20. Chapman EH. Homeopathic treatment of patients with persistent mild traumatic brain injury. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, Suppl 1,S60. In a randomised, placebo-controlled trial, 50 people with persistent mild traumatic brain injury were treated either with their constitutional homeopathic remedy or placebo. The homeopathic treatment provided superior results to those from the placebo control.
21. Clark J, Percivall AA. Preliminary Investigation into the Effectiveness of the Homoeopathic Remedy, Ruta graveolens, in the Treatment of Pain in Plantar Fasciitis. British Journal of Podiatry, 2000, 3, 3, 81- 85. In a randomised double-blind trial, 14 people suffering from plantar fasciitis were given Ruta graveleons 30C or placebo. Those using the Ruta reported a greater level of pain relief than those using placebo.
22. Clover A, Ratsey D. Homoepathic Treatment of Hot Flushes. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2002, 91, 75-79. Researchers at the Tunbridge Wells Homeopathic Hospital in the UK enrolled 31 female outpatients who had complained of menopausal flushes in this trial. They were treated using individualised homeopathic management and after their initial consultation and at least one follow-up, patients completed their own self-assessment rating of the treatment. 79% of the women enrolled in the study reported a reduction in both the severity and frequency of hot flushes as a result of the treatment.
23. Colin P. Homeopathy and respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95 (2):68-72. In this case series, 147 consecutive patients suffering from respiratory allergy who attended a private homeopathic clinic were assessed for their response to constitutional homeopathic treatment. Of these patients, 105 were sufferers of ear, nose and throat allergies. Only 2 of these patients failed to respond to treatment and none experienced an exacerbation of symptoms. The other 42 patients were sufferers of pulmonary allergies, all except 5 of whom experienced relief, with 2 of these experiencing an exacerbation of symptoms.
24. Davidson JRT, Morrison RM, Shore J, Davidson RT, Bedayn G. Homeopathic Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Alternative Therapies, 3, 1, January 1997, 46-49. In this trial, 12 subjects suffering from major depression, social phobia or panic disorder, were treated for 7 to 80 weeks with individually prescribed homoeopathic remedies and assessed on a clinical global improvement scale (CGIS) or self-rated SCL-90 scale and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS). Subjects were given homoeopathic treatment either because they asked for it directly or because conventional treatment had been unsuccessful. The overall response rates for homoeopathy were 58% on the CGIS and 50% on the SCL-90 and SPS.
25. Derasse M, Klein P, Weiser M. The effects of a complex homeopathic medicine compared with acetaminophen in the symptomatic treatment of acute febrile infections in children: an observational study. Explore (NY). 2005 Jan;1(1):33-9. In this non-randomised observational study carried out in 38 Belgian clinics, 198 children suffering from acute febrile infections were assessed for their response to either acetaminophen or a combination of homeopathic medicines. The children had their infection symptoms, which included fever, cramps, disturbed sleep, crying, and difficulties eating or drinking, assessed and graded for a response to their respective medicines. After taking the results from all variables into account, it was found that the homeopathic combination was as effective as acetaminophen. The tolerance to medicines was also assessed as part of this trial and in this respect it was found that the homeopathic combination was superior to the acetaminophen.
26. Dorfman P, Lassere NM, Tetau M, Homoeopathic Medicines in Pregnancy and Labor, Cahiers de Biotherapie, 94, April 1987, 77-81. In this randomised double blind trial involving 93 women, a combination of homeopathic Caulophyllum, Actea racemosa, Arnica, Pulsatilla and Gelsemium, all in 5C potency, was used to determine its effect on the length of labor and complication rates. The medicine was used from the beginning of the ninth month of pregnancy, and reduced the average time of labor to 5.1 hours, in comparison to the placebo, the use of which was associated with an average labor time of 8.5 hours. The rate of complications for those using the homoeopathic combination was 11.3% while the complication rate under placebo was 40%.
27. Eid P, Felisi E, Sideri M; Applicability of Homoeopathic Caulophyllum thalictroides during labour. British Homoeopathic Journal, October, 1993, 82, 245-248. 22 women experiencing their first pregnancies were given homoeopathic Caulophyllum and their post-treatment deliveries compared to 34 labours retrospectively selected on the criteria used to select the test subjects. On analysis it was found that the women who were given the homoeopathic remedy had a reduction of the duration of labour by an average of 90 minutes.
28. Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL, Complementary Treatment of Varicose Veins.. Phebology, 1990, 5, 157-163. Over a period of 24 days, the effects of a homoeopathic complex preparation and placebo on varicose veins were tested in a double-blind trial of 61 people suffering from this condition. The homoeopathic complex produced an averaged 44% improvement in the condition while those given the placebo experienced an averaged worsening of the disorder.
29. Ferley JP, Zmirou D, D'Adhemar D, Balducci F. A Controlled Evaluation of a Homoeopathic Preparation in the Treatment of Influenza-like Syndrome..Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1989, Mar, 27, 3, 329-335. 487 people suffering from influenza were assigned to either Oscillococcinum (Anas barb.) 200CK or placebo, twice daily for 5 days. Significant results were achieved with the medicine over the placebo in all areas measured. This trial was repeated in 1998 (Papp R, Schuback G, Beck E, Burkard G, Bengel J, Lehrl S, Belon P. Oscillococcinum in Patients with Influenza-like Syndromes. British Homeopathic Journal, April 1998, 87, pp69-76) with 372 people with the same results.
30. Fisher P., Greenwood A, Huskisson EC, Turner P and Belon P. Effect of Homoeopathic Treatment on Fibrositis. British Medical Journal, 5 August, 1989, 299, 365-366. Patients using Rhus tox 6C three times daily in a double blind placebo controlled crossover trial found significant relief with the medicine over the placebo.
31. Fisher P. An Experimental Double-blind Clinical Trial method in Homoeopathy- Use of a Limited Range of Remedies to Treat Fibrositis. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1986, July, 75, 3, 142-7. 24 subjects suffering from fibrositis were treated for the condition for 3 months with Arnica, Bryonia or Rhus tox, depending upon the similarity between the individuals’ symptoms and the clinical picture for the remedy. Using scores for pain, number of tender spots, and sleep quality to determine the response to the therapy, these remedies produced a statistically significant improvement, but only when the remedy was well indicated.
32. Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, et al. Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy. 2005 Apr; 94, 2, 75-80. In this study, 70 people admitted to an intensive care unit suffering from severe sepsis were treated either with individualised homeopathic treatment or placebo. On reviewing the signs of sepsis, organ failures, need for mechanical ventilation and other parameters at 180 days after beginning treatment, 76% of the patients using homeopathy met survival criteria versus 50% of those on placebo.
33. Frass M, Dielacher C, Linkesch M, et al. Influence of potassium dichromate on tracheal secretions in critically ill patients. Chest. 2005 Mar;127(3):936-41. Stringy tracheal secretions often complicate or even prevent extubation of people breathing with continuous positive airway pressure. This issue provoked the development of a study involving 50 people breathing spontaneously with continuous positive airway pressure who were randomly assigned to receive either 5 globules twice daily of Kali bic 30C or the same dose and frequency of placebo globules. The study results were assessed using the amount of tracheal secretions from day 2 of the study, the amount of time spent by the subjects in the ICU in which they were staying and the time until successful extubation. After the results were assessed, it was found that those who’d been given the Kali bic produced less tracheal secretions than those on placebo, their stay in the ICU was shorter than those on placebo as was their time to successful extubation.
34. Frei H, Thurneysen A. Treatment for Hyperactive Children: Homeopathy and Methylphenidate Compared in a Family Setting. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 183-188. 114 children attending a paediatric practice where conventional and homeopathic medicines were used, and who were previously diagnosed with ADHD, were given individualised homoeopathic medicines (increasing potencies of the most similar LM remedy). On a parent assessed basis (confirmed by the clinician), if a minimum 50% improvement was not noted within a certain period of time they were placed on Methylphenidate. 75% of the children responded to homoeopathy and 22% required Methylphenidate. 3% of patients did not respond to either regime.
35. Frei H, Thurneysen A. Homeopathy in Acute Otitis Media in Children: Treatment Effect or Spontaneous Resolution? British Homeopathic Journal, 2001, Oct, 90, 4, 180-2. In a study involving 230 children with acute otitis media, homoeopathic treatment was compared with placebo to determine whether homoeopathic treatment provided a faster resolution of symptoms than placebo. After 12 hours, 72% of those using homoeopathy experienced significant relief of symptoms, which was 2.4 times faster than the response to placebo.
36. Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, et al. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Dec, 164, 12, 758-67. 83 children diagnosed as suffering from ADHD using DSMIV criteria were treated with individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. Using the Connor’s Global Index scale it was determined that 63 of these children responded to treatment. These children were then randomised to receive either placebo or homeopathic medicines for 6 weeks and at this point were crossed over to receive placebo if they’d been using the homeopathics or visa versa. At the end of this period it was found that homeopathic therapy provided significantly better results than placebo.
37. Frenkel M, Hermoni D. Effects of Homeopathic Intervention on Medication Consumption in Atopic and Allergic Disorders. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2002, Jan-Feb, 8, 1, 76-9. In a study carried out at the Technicon-Israel Institute in Haifa, Israel, 48 patients were treated for allergic disorders with both homoeopathic and conventional medicines, and monitored for their level of use of the conventional medicines. Over the 3 month monitoring period, 56% of patients reduced their conventional medication use by an average of 60%.
38. Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, Moeller H. The Homoeopathic Treatment of Otitis Media in Children. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 35, 7, 1997, 96-301. In this trial, 131 children suffering from medically diagnosed otitis media were split into two groups. 28 were treated by a team of four ear, nose and throat practitioners using singly or in combination, nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics or antipyretics (Group B). 103 children were treated by one homoeopath using single homoeopathic remedies (Group A). The average duration of pain for Group A was 2 days, as opposed to 3 days for Group B. 70.7% of the Group A children were free of recurrences within the first year of treatment and 29% had a maximum of 3 recurrences while in Group B, 56.5% were free of recurrences within the first year of treatment and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences.
39. Friese KH, Zabalotnyi DI. Homeopathy in acute rhinosinusitis : A double-blind, placebo controlled study shows the efficiency and tolerability of a homeopathic combination remedy. HNO (Organ of the Deutsche Gesellschaft der Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenärzte) 2006 December, 19. Using a randomized, double-blind study method, 144 people with acute rhinosinusitis were treated with a either a combination of homeopathic remedies (Group A) or placebo (Group B) and assessed at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment using a 5 point sinusitis symptom score (the worst score being 20). After analysing the results it was found that those in Group A experienced a drop in symptom scores from 12.1+/-1.6 to 5.9+/-2.0 points after 7 days. Those in Group B found a decrease from 11.7+/-1.6 to 11.0+/-2.9 points (p<0.0001). The final results showed that the homeopathic combination resulted in freedom from complaints in 90.3% of the patients and improvement in a further 8.3%, whereas in the placebo group, the complaints remained unchanged or became worse in 88.9% of the patients.
40. Gasssinger CA, Wunstel G, Netter PA Controlled Clinical Trial for Testing the Efficacy of the Homoeopathic Drug, Eupatorium perfoliatum, D2 in the Treatment of Common Cold. Arznei Forsch, 1981, 31, 4, 732-736. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either Aspirin or Eupatorium perfoliatum 2X. The latter was found to be as effective as Aspirin in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms.
41. Gerhard I, Wallis E. Individualised Homeopathic Therapy for Male Infertility, Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 133-144. An observational pilot study investigated the effect of individualised homeopathic therapy for 45 sub-fertile males, with specific reference to sperm count and quality, hormone levels and the general level of health. Sperm count and sperm motility were improved by homeopathy and the improvement was comparable with conventional treatment.
42. Gibson RG, Gibson SL, MacNeill AD, Gray GH, Dick WC, Buchanan WW. Salicylates and Homoeopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1978, 6, 5, 391-395. In this study, carried out at the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital, 41 people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis were treated with enteric coated aspirin and 54 people suffering from the same condition were treated with individualised homeopathic treatment. The results of the two forms of therapy were compared at the end of the trial and it was found that those on homeopathic treatment did considerably better than those on aspirin. In addition, 16 of the 41 people taking aspirin during the trial experienced side effects while those taking homeopathics experienced no side effects.
43. Gibson RG, Gibson SL. Homoeopathic Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Evaluation by Double Blind Clinical Therapeutic Trial. Br J. Clin. Pharmac. 9, 1980, 453-459. 46 patients using a number of different homoeopathic medicines, prescribed according to homoeopathic principles, were given this medicine or a placebo with their normal anti-arthritic drug. The trial was carried out blind and significant results were achieved with the homeopathic medicine over the placebo in all areas measured.
44. Gimeno L.Q. Homoeopathic Treatment of Human Papilloma Virus infections previously treated by Other Methods. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1996, 85, 194-197. In this study, 14 people suffering from recurrent HPV, previously unresponsive to microsurgical procedures, were treated with individualised homeopathy and assessed via cytology prior to treatment, during, and 1 year after commencing treatment. At the final 1year assessment, 11 of the 14 subjects were declared to be cured.
45. Gmnunder R, Kissling R. The Efficacy of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic low back pain compared to standardized physiotherapy. Zeitschrift für Orthopädie und ihre Grenzgebiete, 2002 Sep-Oct;140, 5, 503-8. In this controlled, randomised, prospective study, 43 people suffering from chronic low back pain were treated for two months either by homeopathy or by standardised physiotherapy. Assessment based on the initial and final clinical investigations, an Oswestry questionnaire, and visual analog scale, found that the most successful method of treatment was homeopathy.
46. Goldstein MS, Glik D. Use of and satisfaction with homeopathy in a patient population. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Mar;4(2):60-5. Carried out in 9 homeopathic clinics in the Los Angeles area, this study was done to determine the success or otherwise of constitutional homeopathic practice as assessed by the people who’d undergone this therapy. The study also looked at the characteristics of the people involved in the study. Information was provided by 77 clients. At 4 months after treatment, 71% of clients reported improvement in their health status. This is contrasted with the fact that 80% of all clients enrolled in this survey had had previous orthodox medical treatment for their condition which they had found unsuccessful. The most common presenting complaints involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive systems and most clients were highly educated but had little knowledge of homeopathy prior to their treatment with it.
47. Guthlin C., Lange O., Walach H. Measuring the Effects of Acupuncture and Homeopathy in General Practice: An Uncontrolled Prospective Documentation Approach. Biomed Central Public Health, 2004, 4, 1, 6. 5000 people were treated for various ailments using acupuncture, and 900 people were treated using individualised homeopathy, by medical practitioners in a number of clinics throughout Germany. Most of these people had previously been treated using conventional drugs. After treatment, of those being treated using acupuncture, 36% stated that they felt “very much better” and 49% felt, “somewhat better”. Of those being treated using homeopathy, 39% stated that they felt “very much better” and 38% felt, “somewhat better”.
48. Haidvogl M, Riley DS, Heger M. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: a comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Mar 2;7:7 The aim of the authors of this study was to compare the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints with orthodox medical treatment for the same conditions. 1577 clients from 57 clinics from Austria, Germany, The Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the USA were enrolled in the study. They were asked to rate their response to either therapy at 14 days after beginning treatment. 86.9% of those given homeopathic medicines declared that they had had either a complete recovery or major improvement in their symptoms. 86% of those given orthodox medical treatment reported the same thing. Subgroup analysis found that 88.5% of children given homeopathics reported a complete recovery or major improvement in symptoms whereas 84.5% of those given orthodox medical treatment reported similar success. In addition, the onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster in those with homeopathic treatment, both in children and adults.
49. Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J. Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial. Homeopathy. 2005 Jul, 94, 3, 175-81. In this blind, placebo-controlled study, 28 people diagnosed with xerostomia (dryness of the mouth) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or individually prescribed homeopathic medicines. Assessed using un-stimulated and wax-stimulated salivary flow rates and visual analogue scales at the end of the trial, 26 of those people using homeopathic treatment and none using placebo were found to have had significant relief. Following the assessment of these results those on placebo were switched to homeopathic therapy, after which all experienced relief from their xerostomia.
50. Harrison RE, Burge TS, et al. Homoeopathic Treatment of Burn Scars. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1993, 82, 252-254. 4 people suffering from hypertrophic scarring subsequent to burns were treated with homeopathic Graphites for 3 months. All 4 subjects were relieved of these symptoms. No controls were used for comparison.
51. Hill N, Stam C, Tuinder S, van Haselen RA. A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial investigating the efficacy of a Homoeopathic After-Bite Gel for Reducing Mosquito bite induced Erythema. Eur J Pharmacol, 1995, 49, 103-108. 68 people were bitten at least 3 times by mosquitoes. One of the bites was treated with an after-bite gel containing homoeopathic ingredients, another of the bites was treated with a placebo gel, and the third bite remained untreated. Erythema associated with the bites was measured before and regularly after treatment at all of the bite sites and the subjects rated the degree of pruritis experienced at the sites. The active gel provided results that were significantly superior to the placebo or no treatment.
52. Hitzenberger G, Kom A, Dorsci M, Bauer P, Wohlzogen FX. Controlled randomised Double Blind study for the Comparison of the Treatment of Patients with Essential Hypertension with Homoeopathic and Pharmacologically Effective Drugs. Weiner Klinische Wochenschrift (Klinische Wochenschrift), 1982, 94, 24, 665-670. In this randomized double-blind cross-over trial, 10 people suffering from essential hypertension were treated either with standard pharmaceutical products or homeopathic medicines. Pharmaceuticals were found to provide superior blood pressure reducing effects but homeopathic were found to be the better choice for the management of the subjective symptoms of hypertension.
53. Issing W., Klein P., Weiser M. The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2005, Feb, 11, 1,155-60. Over a 6 week period, 170 people with an age range of 60- 80 years with atherosclerosis related vertigo were treated for this condition using either a homeopathic combination or herbal gingko biloba. Using a patient-assessed dizzyness questionnaire and practitioner assessment via line walking and other tests as methods of measurement, participants found that the homeopathic combination provided outcomes as good as those with gingko.
54. Itamura R, Hosoya R. Homeopathic Treatment of Japanese patients with intractable Atopic Dermatitis. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 108-114. In this uncontrolled study, 17 people suffering from intractable atopic dermatitis undertook individualised homoeopathic treatment for the condition in conjunction with their existing pharmaceutical therapy, for a period of up to 2 years and 7 months. On an objective assessment and the patient’s own assessment, all patients experienced in excess of 50% improvement by the end of the trial.
55. Itamura R. Effect of homeopathic treatment of 60 Japanese patients with chronic skin disease. Complement Ther Med. 2007 Jun;15(2):115-20. 60 people were enrolled in this uncontrolled trial which was carried out in Obitsu Sankei Hospital in Kawagoe which was designed to determine the effect of individualised homeopathic medicines on several common skin disorders. These disorders included atopic dermatitis, eczema, acne, urticaria, psoriasis and alopecia universalis. Treatment occurred over a period of 3 months to 2 years and 7 months and subjects were permitted to use conventional dermatological treatments while taking part in the trial. Using the trial participants’ own assessment, improvement or otherwise was assessed using a nine-point scale similar to the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale. On this basis, 6 people reported a complete recovery, 23 reported a 75% improvement, 24 found a 50% improvement and 7 had a 25% improvement). In all, 88.3% of patients reported over 50% improvement.
56. Jacobs J, Jiminez J, Gloyd SG, et al. Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea with Homoeopathic Medicine. Paediatrics, May, 1994 93, 5, 719-725. In a randomised, placebo controlled trial with 81 children suffering from acute diarrhoea, individually prescribed homoeopathic medicines were found to be superior to placebo.
57. Jacobs J, Jimenez M, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuk M, Jonas WB. Acute Childhood Diarrhoea- A Replication. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6, 2000, 131-139. In a replication of a previous trial carried out by Jacobs and others, 116 Nepalese children aged 6 months to 5 years suffering from diarrhoea were given an individualised homoeopathic medicine or placebo over a 5 day period. Results assessed at the end of this period showed homeopathy to be superior to placebo as a means of relieving diarrhoea.
58. Jacobs J, Springer DA et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2001, 20: 177-83. 75 children suffering from acute otitis media were given homeopathic treatment or were given treatment with placebo. On assessment it was found that homeopathy provided an improved outcome from this condition.
59. Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, Crothers D. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and meta-analysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Mar;22(3):229-34. In this meta-analysis (an analysis carried out to determine overall trends in a group of similar studies) three double blind clinical trials of diarrhoea in 242 children aged 6 months to 5 years were analysed as one group. The children received either an individualised homeopathic medicine or a placebo, for 5 days after each unformed stool. Records were kept by parents and the duration of diarrhoea was defined as the time until there were less than 3 unformed stools per day for 2 consecutive days. Diarrhoea ceased in those taking homeopathic medicines after 3.3 days and after 4.1 days in those using placebo.
60. Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2005, Feb, 11, 1,:21-7. This study compared the effects of an individualised homeopathic prescription with a homeopathic combination and placebo in 55 women suffering from menopausal symptoms for a period of 1 year. Both the individualised and combination homeopathic therapy provided an improvement in symptoms over placebo, with the individualised homeopathy showing the best outcomes over the first 3 months of the assessment period.
61. Jeffrey SL, Belcher HJ. Use of Arnica to Relieve Pain after Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2002, Mar-Apr, 8, 2, 66-8. 37 patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release surgery were given a combination of Arnica tablets and Arnica ointment or placebo. After 2 weeks of therapy, the group using Arnica reported a significant reduction in pain.
62. Karow JH, Abt HP, Fröhling M, Ackermann H. Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for Healing of Wounds after Hallux valgus Surgery compared to Diclofenac. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):17-25. In this randomised, double-blinded, parallel group study, 88 people who were recovering from foot surgery were randomly assigned to receive either Arnica 4X at a rate of 10 pilules 3 times daily or Diclofenac 50mg 3 times daily. Both therapies were used for 4 days following the surgery. At day 4, subjects were assessed for their postoperative irritation, mobility, pain level, and their use of analgesics. Analysis of the results at this point showed that Arnica and Diclofenac provided the same level of reduction in wound irritation (including swelling) and mobility. Subjective assessment by patients rated Arnica as superior to Diclofenac for mobility. Diclofenac was superior to Arnica for pain reduction and there was no significant difference in analgesic use during the 4 days following surgery. It was also noted in the study that Arnica was 60% cheaper than Diclofenac.
63. Kassab S, Cummings M, Berkovitz S, van Haselen R, Fisher P. Homeopathic Medicines for Adverse effects of Cancer Treatments. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004845. Cochrane Reviews investigate the effects of interventions for prevention, or treatment of illness, or rehabilitation from illness, in a healthcare setting. Most Cochrane Reviews are based on overviews of randomized controlled trials and other forms of evidence that are deemed to be appropriate. This review was conducted to determine what, if any, evidence (in the opinion of the Cochrane reviewers) exists for the treatment by homeopathy of the effects of conventional cancer therapies. A search through numerous databases revealed 8 controlled trials involved in this area of study, 7 of which were placebo controlled and 1 of which was against an active treatment. In total, the trials covered the outcomes of 664 people who’d been variously suffering from the adverse effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or breast cancer treatment. Of the 8, 2 trials exhibited beneficial effects from homeopathy. One of these involved a comparison between the effects of a topical corticosteroid and a homeopathic mother tincture of calendula for the prevention of dermatitis from radiotherapy where the calendula proved to be superior to the drug. The other involved the successful use of a homeopathic complex for stomatatitis caused by chemotherapy.
64. Kayne S. A Pilot Trial to Study the Perceived Effectiveness of Homoeopathic remedies bought Over The Counter (OTC) in British Pharmacies. Journal of the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital NHS Trust, 1997, January 23-24, 90-94. 1000 questionnaires were sent to 8 UK pharmacies, requesting them to pass the questionnaires to customers. These, questionnaires asked the customers whether or not they found OTC homoeopathic medicines effective for the conditions for which they were purchased. A total of 257 users responded, and the accumulated results showed that 83% of respondents felt better after taking the product.
65. Keil T, Witt CM, Roll S, Vancea W, Webera K, Wegscheiderb K, Willich SN. Homoeopathic versus Conventional Treatment of Children with Eczema: A comparative Cohort Study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2008) 16, 15—21. This was a prospective, multi-centre, parallel-group, comparative cohort study was conducted in urban and mixed urban—rural regions of Germany. 118 children suffering from clinically defined eczema seen at 54 homeopathic practices and 64 conventional medical practices were treated for the condition with the respective therapeutic protocols normally used in these clinics, i.e. individualised homeopathic or conventional medical therapy. Treatment occurred over a period of 12 months and the outcomes of the 2 different methods of therapy were assessed at 6 months and 12 months by the children or their parents on the basis of eczema signs and symptoms and the quality of life. Overall, on the basis of clinical symptoms and quality of life, there was little difference in the response rates of both groups to their respective therapies although at 12 months after starting treatment, those children who were treated homeopathically had a greater level of recovery from symptoms than those treated with conventional medicine. No adverse reactions were reported for either group
66. Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF. Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the Southwest Region of the US: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2005, Apr, 39, 4, 617-24. In this double-blind trial, 34 people diagnosed with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a combination of potentised allergens (made from the pollens of trees, grasses or weeds identified as allergens). After the 4 week treatment period using 2 sprays 3 times a day of either the potentised allergen mix or placebo, the trial subjects were assessed on the basis of their allergy specific symptoms using 3 separate questionnaire formats (RQLQ, MOS SF-36 and the WPAI). The potentised allergen mix showed significant positive changes compared to placebo.
67. Klopp R, Niemer W, Weiser M. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study. Microvasc Res. 2005, 69, 1-2,10-6.The aim of this non-randomized, open study was to test the effectiveness of a homeopathic combination product on variables related to microcirculation in 16 people suffering from vestibular vertigo, compared to a control group of 16 untreated people also suffering from vestibular vertigo. Measurements were carried out in two areas (defined by selecting 60 blood-cell perfused nodal points of arterioles, venules, and capillaries with a mean diameter > or = 40 microns): the cuticulum/subcuticulum of the inside left lower arm and an area 5 mm behind the left earlobe. After 12 weeks of treatment, those people receiving the homeopathic preparation exhibited an increased number of nodal points, increased flow rates of erythrocytes in both arterioles and venules, increased vasomotion, and a slight reduction in hematocrit vs. baseline. None of these changes were observed in the control group. Measurements were also made of partial oxygen pressure and the numbers of cell-wall adhering leucocytes, both of which were significantly increased in the test group compared to the control group. All of these parameters were associated with a reduction in the severity of the vertigo symptoms, both on patient as well as practitioner assessment.
68. Kneusel O, Weber M, Suter A. Arnica montana Gel in Osteoarthritis of the Knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Advanced Therapies, 2002, Sep-Oct, 19, 5, 209-18. In this uncontrolled study, 79 people suffering from mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee were given a gel containing Arnica and asked to apply it twice daily. They were assessed at 3 and 6 weeks for pain, stiffness and functional ability of the knee. Both assessments showed a significant reduction in pain and stiffness, and a significant improvement in the functional ability of the knee.
69. Kulkarni A, Nagarkar BM, Burde GS. Radiation protection by use of homoeopathic medicines. Proceedings from the 8th Conference of Radiation Oncologists of India, Bombay, December 1986, reported in Hahnemann Homoeopath Sand, 1988 Jan,12, 1, 20-3. 82 patients receiving radiotherapy were randomly assigned to receive placebo, Cobaltum 30C or Causticum 30C as a means of assessing the effects of these against dermatological reactions to the radiotherapy. The homeopathic medicines provided a significant reduction in the degree of radiation reactions when compared to placebo
70. Lamont J., Homoeopathic Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). British Homoeopathic Journal, 1997, 86, 196-200. 43 children with ADHD were given either a placebo or an individualised homeopathic medicine, in accordance with a double blind partial crossover dose regime. When the results were compared at the end of the trial, it was found that the homeopathic treatment for ADHD was superior to that using placebo.
71. Launso L, Kimby CK, Henningsen I, Fonnebo V. An exploratory retrospective study of people suffering from hypersensitivity illnesses who attend medical or classical homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2006 Apr;95 (2):73-80. This study reports the results of orthodox medical treatment compared to the homeopathic treatment of various hypersensitivity illnesses in 88 people. 34 of these people were treated using orthodox medical means and 54 using constitutional homeopathy. 24% of those treated medically experienced an improvement in their condition while 57% of those treated with homeopathy experienced similar relief.
72. Ludke R, Weisenauer M. A Meta-analysis of Homeopathic Treatment of Pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1997, 147, 14, 323-7. In this analysis, 7 randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials and 4 trials without placebo controls were examined to determine the therapeutic benefits of Galphimia glauca in pollinosis. In all studies except for one, Galphimia showed significant benefit over placebo where placebo controls were used, or showed significant clinical benefit where the remedy was not compared to placebo. The recovery rates for Galphimia were comparable with those seen with conventional anti-histamines, but without the same side effects.
73. Maas HPJA. Ulcerative Colitis treated with Homoeopathy British Homoeopathic Journal, July 1993, 82, 179-185. In this retrospective case analysis, 24 people suffering from ulcerative colitis were treated in an Argentinian clinic using constitutional homoeopathy over periods of up to 19 years. Of these 24, 16 patients were assessed as having good outcomes.
74. Manchanda RK, Mehan N, Bahl R, Atey R. Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trials of Homoeopathic Medicines in Warts and Molluscum contagiosum, CCRH Quarterly Bulletin, 1997, 19, 25-29. This trial was reported in two parts, one to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathy for warts (remedies included Ruta graveolens, Nitricum acidum, Dulcamara, Causticum and Thuja) the other to evaluate the homoeopathic remedy, Calcarea carbonica, for Molluscum contagiosum. Placebo controlled studies involving a total of 147 subjects using single remedies in 30C potencies three times daily, 200C twice daily and 1M daily, for 15 days, showed that homoeopathy was superior to placebo. Thuja was the most successful of the remedies used for warts.
75. Marian F, Joost K, Saini KD, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A, Busato A. Patient Satisfaction and Side Effects in Primary Care: An observational study comparing Homeopathy and Conventional Medicine. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Sep 18;8(1):52. This was a study carried out by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health designed to determine levels of patient satisfaction and the perception of side effects following the use of homeopathic medicine. It was part of a national program designed to evaluate complementary and alternative medicine use in Switzerland. The bulk of the data used in the study came from questionnaires filled in over a specific 4 day period supplied by physicians using conventional medicine, physicians using homeopathic medicine, and from patients who’d filled in questionnaires mailed to them 1 month after treatment. 170 practitioners were involved in the study. A total of 3126 questionnaires were received by the researchers and analysis of these revealed the following. 21% of those treated with homeopathy reported “complete resolution” of the presenting complaint versus 28% of those on conventional therapy and 53% reported “complete satisfaction” with homeopathic treatment versus 40% of those given conventional therapy. The rate of side effects reported by those using homeopathy was less than those given conventional medicine.
76. Maronna U, Weiser M, Klein P. Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerance of Zeel comp. and Diclofenac for the Oral Treatment of Gonarthrosis. Biological Medicine, 2000, 29, 3, 157-158. Diclofenac, a non-steroidal inflammatory drug, is a commonly prescribed medicine for rheumatic diseases. The effects of this drug were compared to those of Zeel, a homoeopathic complex preparation, with 121 people suffering from gonarthrosis. The trial was designed as a randomised, double-blind, actively controlled parallel study. Assessments for pain, stiffness and functional ability were carried out at 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after commencing treatments and by the end of the 10 week period, there were no statistical differences observed in the outcomes of both treatment regimes. The homoeopathic complex product and the drug were equally effective in the management of gonarthrosis.
77. Mathie RT, Farrer S. Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in dental practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):74-81. This paper presented the results of a study into the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic medicines for the management of common dental complaints and the effectiveness of a specific protocol used to collect such data. 14 dentists who routinely practice homeopathy contributed data to the study and data from the observations of and by 726 individual patients were collected. Of the 496 patients who were able to be followed up, 90.1% reported a positive outcome, 1.8% experienced a deterioration of the condition and 7.9% of patients reported no change.
78. Matusiewicz R. The effect of a homoepathic preparation on the clinical condition of patients with corticosteroid dependant bronchial asthma. Biomedical Therapy, 1997, June, 15, 3, 70-74. In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, 40 people suffering from corticosteroid- dependant bronchial asthma were given either placebo or a combination homeopathic formula, every 5 to 7 days by subcutaneous injection. Using standard spirometry and granulocyte function to measure the response, researchers found that the combination product provided superior results to placebo.
79. McCutcheon LE. Treatment of anxiety with a homoeopathic remedy Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1996, 48, 1& 2, 2-6. 72 people with above-average levels of anxiety were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and assigned to either a test or control (placebo) group to assess the relative benefits of a combination homeopathic product designed to relieve anxiety. Using sleep loss as a measure of anxiety, the combination product produced results that were better than those from placebo.
80. Milewska G, Trzebiatowska-Trzeciak O. Homoeopathic Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1993, 82, 249-251. Alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens experienced by 30 alcoholics was the focus of this uncontrolled study carried out in a Polish medical clinic. Patients were treated with individualised homeopathy and their progress followed for 2 months. The treatment resulted in a reduced duration of alcohol withdrawal time and delirium tremens in all patients.
81. Mohan GR, et al, Cervical Spondylosis- a Clinical Study, British Homoeopathic Journal, July 1996, 85, 131-133. In this uncontrolled study, 154 people suffering from cervical spondylosis were prescribed either homoeopathic Calcium fluoride, or a remedy selected via repertorisation of their mental and physical general symptoms, and their progress monitored for 1 year. Of those given Calc fluor, clinical improvement was seen in 60% of cases. 48% of those given the remedy arrived at by repertorisation reported clinical improvement.
82. Mohan GR, Anandhi KS. Efficacy of homeopathic drugs in dermatitis of atopic diathesis. Homoeopathic Links, 2003, Winter, 16, 4, 257-260. The authors treated 31 people suffering from either atopic skin and respiratory symptoms, or atopic skin symptoms alone. Both groups were treated with individualised homeopathic therapy over a period of 5 years. During a 6 month assessment period following this treatment, the authors determined that 41% of the group with skin and respiratory symptoms achieved not less than a 76% improvement in symptoms and 58% of the group with skin symptoms alone achieved this outcome.
83. Mohan GR. Efficacy of Homeopathy in Childhood Asthmas. Homeopathic Links, Summer 2007, Vol 20, 104-107. This paper reports of work done in India by homeopath, GR Mohan, looking at the results of the homeopathic treatment of 81 children suffering from clinically defined asthma who had previously been treated unsuccessfully with conventional medicine. This open study involved the use of individually prescribed homeopathic medicines for a period of 2 years as a means of reducing the recurrence of asthma attacks. Results were assessed according the 12 point Modified Borg Scale, a subjective scale used to assess the severity of dyspnoea. At the end of the allotted 2 year period, the results were analysed and it was found that asthma had become controlled in 60.5% of children who’d been treated with homeopathy, and some control was achieved in a further 21%. 12.3% of the group failed to respond to the treatment. The medicines used most frequently in this study were Arsenicum album, Merc solubilis, Hepar sulph, Arsenicum iod, Antimony tart, Pulsatilla and Calc carb.
84. Mojaver YN, Mosavi F, Mazaherinezhad A, Shahrdar A, Manshaee K.. Individualized homeopathic treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: an observational study. Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):82-6. This uncontrolled study, carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine at Iran’s Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, was designed to discover if individually prescribed homeopathic medicines could provide relief from medically diagnosed trigeminal neuralgia. 15 people suffering from the condition were enrolled in the study and after receiving their individual prescriptions they were assessed monthly using a Visual Analogue Scale to gauge the severity of their symptoms. After the results were assessed at 4 months it was found that individualised homeopathic treatment was associated with an average reduction in pain intensity of more than 60%.
85. Müller-Krampe B, Oberbaum M, Dipl-Math PK, Weiser M. Effects of Spascupreel versus hyoscine butylbromide for gastrointestinal cramps in children. Pediatr Int. 2007 Jun;49(3):328-34. In this observational cohort study, 204 children under 12 years of age suffering from gastrointestinal spasms and cramps were given either hyoscine butylbromide, a drug commonly prescribed for these conditions, or Spascupreel, a homeopathic complex. After a 1 week period of treatment, the results from these interventions were assessed by a practitioner reviewing reports from the child’s parent or carer using severity of spasms, pain or cramps, sleep disturbances, eating or drinking difficulties, and the frequency of crying, to measure outcomes according to a 4 point scale. Analysis of the results showed that both medicines provided similar levels of benefit.
86. Muscari-Tomaioli G, Allegri F, Miali E, Pomposelli R, Tubia P, Targhetta A, Castellini M, Bellavite P. Observational Study of Quality of Life in patients with Headache, receiving Homeopathic Treatment. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 189-197. In this study, 53 people suffering from headaches were treated by the individual study authors using constitutionally prescribed homeopathic medicines, completing SF-36 health-related quality of life questionnaires before and 4-6 months after beginning the treatment. More the 60% of the subjects experienced an improvement in the condition.
87. Oberbaum M, Schreiber R, Rosenthal C, Itzchaki M. Homeopathic Treatment in Emergency Medicine, a case series. Homeopathy, 2003, 92, 44-47. In this study, 15 people suffering from orthopaedic trauma were treated in a medical centre with homoeopathy, in addition to standard medical treatment. Treatment was commenced 24 hours after admission. All patients initially received homeopathic Arnica 200C and anxiety was treated with Aconite, Opium, Ignatia or Arsenicum album, all in 200C potency. 24 hours following this treatment, the majority of patients reported a reduction in pain and anxiety. 48 hours after admission, patients were treated with individualised homoeopathic remedies. At discharge, 67% of patients rated the homoeopathic treatment as successful.
88. Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: preliminary results. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun, 13, 2, 87-90. Forty women experiencing post-partum bleeding were randomly assigned to receive a mixture of Arnica 30C and Bellis 30C, Arnica 6C and Bellis 6C, or placebo. Mean haemoglobin values were measured at 72 hours post-partum, at which point it was found that those women given homeopathic therapy experienced significantly less change in haemoglobin values than those given placebo.
89. Pai PN; Thiosinaminum in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis with Calcaneal Spurs. British Homoeopathic Journal, October, 1992, 81, 173-175. In this uncontrolled study, 43 people suffering from plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spurs were treated with homeopathic Thiosinimum, Thiosinimum and Merc cor, or Thiosinimum and Merc biniod. Thiosinimum alone proved to be the therapy most likely to be helpful in resolving recently developed cases.
90. Pai PN. Nephrotic Syndrome. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1969, 58, 94. In a case series, 23 children suffering from clinically diagnosed nephrotic syndrome were treated using individualised homeopathic medicines for periods varying from 1 month to 7 years. Subjects received acute and/or chronic treatment for the condition and in several acute episodes, corticosteroid therapy was used, in addition to homeopathic management. For the majority of the children treated either with homeopathic or a combination of homeopathic and corticosteroid therapy, the severity of the symptoms they had previously experienced was reduced. The main homeopathic remedies used in the cases mentioned in this study included homeopathic Apis mellifica, Arsenicum album, Natrum muriaticum and Silica.
91. Pomposelli R, Piasere V, Andreoni C, Costini G, Tonini E, Spalluzzi A, Observational study of Homeopathic and Conventional therapies in patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy. Homeopathy. 2009 Jan;98(1):17-25. Researchers at the University of Verona in Italy designed this observational study to compare the effects of homeopathic therapy with conventional drug therapy for diabetic neuropathy. Over a 12 month period, 32 patients treated with homeopathy and 29 patients given conventional drug therapy were assessed for clinical symptoms and quality of life at baseline, 6 months and 12 months after beginning treatment. Improvement from baseline polyneuropathy symptoms was noted in both groups but only those treated homeopathically reached outcomes that were statistically significant. Both groups experienced improvements in blood pressure and body weight as well as levels of fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin. In addition, only those in the homeopathy group noted an improvement in quality of life scores over the period of the study. It was also noted that homeopathic treatment was more economical than the conventional drug alternative.
92. Popov A.V. Homoeopathy in the Treatment of Patients with Fibromyoma of the Uterus. British Homoeopathic Journal, October 1992, 81, 164-167. In this study, 84 women suffering from various forms of uterine fibromyoma were prescribed individualised homeopathic medicines over a period of 1 to 3 years. Assessments at the end of the treatment period found that pain was improved in 79% of the subjects, abnormal bleeding was improved in 75% of subjects and in the majority of subjects the treatment resulted in a reduction of fibromyoma volume.
93. Rabe A., Weiser M., Klein P. Effectiveness and tolerability of a homoeopathic remedy compared with conventional therapy for mild viral infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 2004, Sep, 58, 9, 827-32. In this observational cohort study, 485 people with symptoms of mild viral infection (fever, headache, myalgia, cough or sore throat), were treated either via conventional medical means or with a homeopathic combination product. On a practitioner evaluation basis, at the end of the treatment period, the homeopathic combination provided a successful outcome in 78% of cases and conventional treatment in 52% of cases.
94. Rai Y. Treatment of Drug Dependants with Homoeopathy. CCRH Quarterly Bulletin, 16, 3&4, 1994, 25-28. 261 people suffering from symptoms related to the withdrawal from drugs of dependence were treated with individualised homoeopathy. Remedies were given at 8 to 12 hours after ceasing use of the drug. 209 (80%) of the subjects found the treatment to be effective.
95. Rastogi DP, Singh VP, Singh V, Dey SK, Rao K. Homeopathy in HIV infection. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1999, 88, 49-57. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial, 50 people with asymptomatic HIV infection and 50 people with symptomatic (persistent generalised lymphadenopathy) HIV infection and were given either placebo or an individualised homoeopathic medicine. Using numbers of pre and post treatment CD4+ve T-lymphocytes as a measure, it was found that homoeopathic treatment was successful for symptomatic HIV sufferers, but not for asymptomatic sufferers.
96. Reilly R, Taylor MA, McSharry C, et al. Is Homoeopathy a Placebo Response? Lancet, Oct 18, 1986, 881- 885. 144 people suffering from hayfever were enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial. The use of 30C mixed grass pollens provided better clinical outcomes than placebo.
97. Riley D, Fischer M, Singh B, Haidvogl M, Heger M. Homeopathy and Conventional Medicine: An Outcomes Study Comparing Effectiveness in a Primary Care Setting. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2001, Apr, 7, 2, 149-59. In this study, carried out by 30 investigators, at 6 clinics in 4 countries, 456 patients suffering from upper respiratory allergies, lower respiratory allergies or ear disorders were assigned to one of two groups- those prescribed homeopathic medicines (group A) or those prescribed standard medical treatment (Group B). The outcome measure was the response to treatment after 14 days, as well as the speed of recovery, rate of side effects, level of general satisfaction and length of consultation. The response to treatment within 14 days was 82.6% in Group A and 68% in Group B. For recovery speed, 67% of Group A recovered within 3 days and 57% of Group A recovered at this speed. The side effect rate for Group A was 8% compared to 22% for Group B. Those claiming to be very satisfied with their respective treatments were 79% of Group A and 65% of Group B. The majority (60%) of both groups received consultations that lasted for between 5 and 15 minutes.
98. Riveron-Garrote M, et al. Clinical Trial of Asthma, Boletin Mexicano, 1998, 31, 54-61. In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, 63 asthma sufferers were treated for 4 months with either specific homoeopathic remedies or placebo. Assessed using peak flow rates, 97% of those taking homoeopathic medicines and 12% or those taking placebo experienced an improvement.
99. Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy. 2007 January, 96, 1, 17-21. In this trial, 190 people undergoing tonsillectomy were randomly assigned to receive Arnica 30C or a placebo at a dose rate of 2 tablets 6 times in the first post-operative day and then 2 tablets twice a day for the next 7 days. On a patient-assessed 14 days post-operative visual analogue scale for pain, those given the Arnica 30C were found to have a statistically significant decrease in pain scores compared to placebo.
100. Robinson T. Responses to homeopathic treatment in National Health Service general practice. Homeopathy. 2006 Jan;95(1):9-14. This study was designed to determine the level of effectiveness of homeopathy as used in a general practice clinic where the standard 10 minute consultation time applies. To do this, 5,331 patient files, taken from one 12 month period in one general practice clinic, were examined and those files that described a consultation where a homeopathic medicine was given were separated out for analysis. This produced a total of 489 consultations that resulted in a homeopathic medicine prescription. Of these, 78% of patients had a positive response to their treatment with homeopathy, 19% had no response, and 3% had a negative response.
101. Sanchez-Resendiz J, Guzman-Gomez F. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatica, 30, 1997, 11-15. 36 women suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), and fitting the mental picture of the homoeopathic remedy Pulsatilla, were given Pulsatilla 6C, 4 hourly throughout the day for 2 weeks after the end of menstruation, and this was repeated for 4 consecutive cycles. At the end of the trial 30 of the 36 women had complete disappearance of the symptoms of PCOS and the production of normal ovulating follicles and a further 4 of the 36 became asymptomatic
102.Saruggia M, Corghi E. Effects of homoeopathic dilutions of China rubra on intradialytic symptomatology in patients treated with haemodialysis. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1992, April, 81, 2, 86-88. Using a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo- controlled trial design, 35 people with end-stage renal failure on regular haemodialysis were assessed to determine their response to either placebo or China rubra 9C. Those people using the China experienced statistically significant relief from asthenia, headache and lethargy.
103. Schlappack O. Homeopathic treatment of radiation induced itching in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 210-215. 25 women suffering from post-radiotherapy induced itching were treated at the University of Vienna’s Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology using individualised homeopathic medicines. After assessment (1-27 days after beginning the treatment) it was found that homeopathic treatment had been successful in 21 of the women enrolled in the study.
104. Schmidt CA. Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: Arnica montana Applied Topically to Subcutaneous Mechanical Injuries. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, Winter 1996, 89, 4, 186- 193. In this trial 141 runners were asked to use topical preparations containing placebo, Arnica 1X or Arnica 6C, and to rate the effectiveness of the preparations at relieving post-exercise muscle soreness. The preparation containing Arnica provided superior results to placebo and preparation containing Arnica 1X was reported to be superior to that containing Arnica 6C.
105. Schmiedel V, Klein P. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: An observational study. Explore (NY). 2006 Mar;2 (2):109-14. 379 people suffering from upper respiratory infections were given either conventional medical treatment (antihistamines, anti-tussives, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or a combination homeopathic product. Using variables such as fatigue, sensation of illness, chill/tremor, aching joints, overall severity of illness, sum of all clinical variables, and temperature to assess the effects of either form of therapy, the researchers found that both approaches were effective, although the homeopathic combination provided faster relief from symptoms (77% were improved within 3 days compared to 62%).
106. Schneider C, Klein P, Stolt P, Oberbaum M. A homeopathic ointment preparation compared with 1% diclofenac gel for acute symptomatic treatment of tendinopathy. Explore (NY). 2005 Nov, 1, 6, 446-52. In this non-randomised, observational study carried out in 95 German homeopathic and conventional medical clinics, 357 people with various forms of tendinopathy were given either an ointment containing a mixture of homeopathic remedies, or Diclofenac (a popular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), for up to 28 days. Using a four-degree scale on pain-related variables related to motility, and on overall treatment outcome, the ointment containing the mixture of homeopathic remedies provided a therapeutic outcome that was superior to Diclofenac.
107. Schneider C, Schneider B, Hanisch J, van Haselen R. The role of a homoeopathic preparation compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of injuries: an observational cohort study. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):22-7. The researchers in this study set out to compare the effectiveness of a homeopathic combination product (Traumeel) with conventional medical treatment ,for injuries. 125 people suffering from various musculoskeletal injuries were treated either with the homeopathic combination or conventional medicine and were assessed for resolution of the complaint at the end of the trial period. At this point, the 59.4% of the group receiving the homeopathic combination had complete resolution compared with 57.8% of the group treated with conventional medicine. 6.3% of the latter group experienced adverse reactions to the treatment and none of those on the homeopathic combination experienced side effects.
108. Schroder D, Weiser M, Klein P. Efficacy of a Homeopathic Crataegus preparation compared with usual therapy for Mild Cardiac Insufficiency: Results of an Observational Cohort Study. European Journal of Heart Failure, 2003, June, 5, 3, 319-26. In a non-randomised cohort study, 212 people suffering from mild cardiac insufficiency were given Cralonin, a homoeopathic combination product, or a combination of an ACE inhibitor and diuretic (a combination medical therapy normally prescribed for this condition). Both products were similarly effective in controlling the condition.
109. Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, et al. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb, 8, 1, 54-9. In this trial, 29 people who were undergoing facelifts were randomised to receive either perioperative homeopathic arnica, or placebo. They were examined post-operatively for bruising at days 1, 5, 7 and 10. Assessment done at days 1 and 7 showed a signification reduction in bruising when compared to placebo.
110. Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 829 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, 178- 187. In this study, consecutive patient files in a single homeopathic clinic were examined to determine the success or otherwise of this form of treatment. Of the 829 patients surveyed, 61% had a sustained improvement from their constitutional homeopathic treatment.
111. Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 455 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy. 2005 Oct, 94, 4, 215-21. This study examined the effect of individualised homeopathic treatment of 455 consecutive patients in a homeopathic medical clinic who’d previously had unsuccessful orthodox medical treatment or were considered to be unsuitable for orthodox medical treatment. Of these, 67% derived benefit from homeopathic therapy, and 33% were able to stop or maintain a substantial reduction in their pharmaceutical drug therapy.
112. Shackleton M.F., Tondora CM, Whiting S, Whitney M. The Effect of Homeopathic Coca on High Altitude Mountain Sickness. Complementary Health Practice Review, 2000, 6, 1, 45- 55. 11 members of the 1998 Everest Challenge Expedition were given either placebo or Coca 200C daily. Assessed on the primary symptoms of altitude sickness as well as oxygen saturation, those using the homoeopathic medicine showed significantly less signs and symptoms of altitude sickness.
113. Shealy CN, Thomlinson PR, Cox RH, Bormeyer V. Osteoarthritis Pain: A Comparison of Homoeopathy and Acetaminophen. American Journal of Pain Management, 8, 3, July 1998, 89-91. In this trial, 65 sufferers of osteoarthritis (OA) were split into 2 groups, and through a double blinding process were given either a homoeopathic medicine or Acetaminophen, a commonly prescribed drug for pain relief in OA. Researchers found that homoeopathy provided a level of pain relief that was superior to Acetaminophen, and produced no adverse reactions.
114. Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH. Effective Treatment of Seborrhaic Dermatitis using a Low Dose Oral Homeopathic Medication. Alternative Medicine Reviews, 2002, Feb, 7, 1, 59-67. 41 patients with seborrhaic dermatitis received either placebo or a homoeopathic combination product for 10 weeks. Significant improvement was seen in the test group when compared to those using placebo.
115. Spence DS, Thompson EA, Barron SJ. Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year, university-hospital outpatient observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 793-8. This study looked at the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic therapy over a 6 year period in a UK homeopathic hospital outpatient department. The results from 6544 consecutive patients were examined, and when compared to baseline observations it was found that of these patients, 70% reported an improvement in their conditions.
116. Stanton HE. Test and Anxiety- A Five Drop Solution. Education News, 1981, 17, 6, 12-15. In this trial, 40 students suffering from test-induced anxiety were given either homeopathic Argentum nitricum 12X or placebo. The level of test-induced anxiety was significantly reduced from the homeopathic medicine when compared to the placebo and this effect appeared to persist over time.
117. Steinsbekk A, Ludtke R. Patients' assessments of the effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway: a prospective observational multicentre outcome study. Homeopathy, 2005, 94, 1, 10-6. In this prospective uncontrolled observational multi-centre outcome study, 654 people who’d visited 80 Norwegian homeopaths were asked to assess, via a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) the effectiveness of this form of treatment comparing the VAS score at their first consultation with the VAS score 6 months later. After the results were collated it was found that 70% of those people visiting a Norwegian homeopath reported a meaningful improvement in their main complaint 6 months after the initial consultation.
118. Strauss LC. The Efficacy of a Homeopathic Preparation in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biomedical Therapy, 2000, 18, 2, 197- 201. 20 children suffering from ADHD, were given either placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Selenium-Homaccord) and were assessed in accordance with pre and post test conduct and psychosomatic problems, impulsivity and anxiety. The homoeopathic combination provided superior results to those of placebo.
119. Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellan-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC. Randomised Controlled Trial of Homoeopathy versus Placebo in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis with Overview of Four Trial Series. British Medical Journal, 2000, 321, 471-476, 19 August. 51 people suffering from allergic rhinitis were randomly assigned either homeopathically potentised allergens or placebo. Those given the medicine experienced significant relief over those assigned the placebo.
120. Trichard M, Chaufferin G, Nicoloyannis N. Pharmaco-economic comparison between homeopathic and antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis in children. Homeopathy. 2005, 94, 1, 3-9. In this 6 month prospective study involving 499 children suffering from acute rhinopharyngitis, the effectiveness, quality of life and cost of treatment with homeopathic (Group A) versus antibiotic (Group B) medicines, as prescribed by French medical practitioners, were assessed. Effectiveness, as measured by the numbers of episodes occurring subsequent to treatment, was 2.71 for Group A and 3.97 for Group B and quality of life as measured by the ParEnt-Qol scale was 21 for Group A versus 30 for Group B, which indicates a higher quality of life for those in Group A. In regard to costs, average direct medical costs were 88 Euros for Group A and 99 for Group B. Parental sick-leave affected 9.5% of the parents from Group A and 30% for Group B.
121. Tuten C, McLung J. Reducing Muscle Soreness with Arnica Montana. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, December 1999, 5, 6, 369- 372. 23 people were given either placebo or Arnica 6X for the management of delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise. Outcomes were assessed subjectively by the participants themselves, and by creatinine kinase (CK) assays. CK levels are indicative of muscle or connective tissue damage. While there was only a small subjective difference between the 2 groups, the people using Arnica 6X produced less CK than those using placebo, which tends to indicate that those using Arnica experienced less tissue damage on exertion.
122. Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink CFS, Norsch J. Arnica and Muscle Soreness. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Medicine (FACT), 1998, 3 (4), 155-156. 46 competitors in the 3 day 1995 Oslo marathon were randomly assigned either homeopathic Arnica or placebo twice daily and assessed for muscle soreness after the event. Those using Arnica found significant relief with the medicine over the placebo.
123. Tveiten D, Bruset S. Effect of Arnica D30 in marathon runners. Pooled results from two double-blind placebo controlled studies. Homeopathy. 2003 Oct;92(4):187-9. In this study combing the effects of two clinical trials on homeopathic Arnica D30 (30X), the homoeopathic remedy was compared to placebo in 82 Oslo marathon runners for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine (indicating cell damage) and the subjective control of muscular soreness. Those runners taking Arnica experienced less muscle soreness when compared to placebo, but there was no difference between both groups for muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine.
124. Van Erp VM, Brands M. Homoeopathic Treatment of Malaria in Ghana. British Homoeopathic Journal, 1996, April, 85, 2, 66-70. In a randomised double blind trial with limited numbers of subjects, homoeopathic treatment was compared to treatment by Chloroquine. The group using homoeopathic medicines experienced an 83.3% improvement, while the group using Chloroquine experienced a 72% improvement within the same time period.
125. Van Haselen RA, Fisher PA. A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology, 2000, Jul, 39, 7, 714-9. In this controlled double-blind trial, 172 people with radiographically confirmed symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either piroxicam gel (a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory gel) or a gel containing 3 homeopathic ingredients (Symphytum, Rhus tox and Ledum). At the conclusion of the trial it was found that the gel containing the homeopathic ingredients was at least as effective as the piroxicam gel.
126. Van Wasserhoven M., Ives G. An Observational Study of Patients receiving Homeopathic Treatment. Homeopathy, 2004, 93, 3-11. 782 people suffering from a wide range of diseases who had visited 80 general medical practices in Belgium were treated with individualised homeopathic medicines over an average period of 9 years and 2 months. Most of these people had previously been treated using conventional drugs. The outcomes from this treatment were assessed both by the patients and the practitioners via questionnaires. 13% of the patients assessed in the study expressed satisfaction with previous conventional treatment and 89% of patients expressed satisfaction with their homeopathic treatment.
127. Von Gasssinger C. A., Wunstel G., Netter P. A Controlled Clinical Trial for Testing the Efficacy of the Homoeopathic Drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in the Treatment of Common Cold. Arzneimittel Forschung, 1981, 31, 4, 732-736. In this trial, 53 people suffering from the common cold were given either acetylsalicylic acid or Eupatorium perfoliatum 2X. Eupatorium was shown to be as effective as the acetylsalicylic acid in its ability to provide benefit to those suffering from the common cold.
128. Walach H, Möllinger H, Sherr J, Schneider R. Homeopathic Pathogenetic Trials produce More Specific than Non-Specific Symptoms: Results from Two Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):543-52. Professor Harold Walach of the University of Northampton and his colleagues have made something of a habit of carrying out provings of homeopathic medicines (particularly Belladonna) within fairly rigidly controlled settings. In this instance the researchers set up 2 studies, both of which were carried out in blinded conditions. The first of these compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone with the effects of a placebo used in the same way. The second test compared the symptoms seen in a controlled proving of homeopathically prepared Ozone and Iridium, used individually, with the symptoms seen from the use of placebo. On analysis, the results showed that both Ozone and Iridium, when used under proving conditions, produced a statistically significant level of symptoms specific to the original provings for the homeopathic preparation.
129. Waldschütz R, Klein P. The homeopathic preparation Neurexan Vs. Valerian for the Treatment of Insomnia: An observational study. Scientific World Journal. 2008 Apr 20; 8: 411-20. This German study, conducted across 89 clinics, compared the effects of a homeopathic combination preparation to valerian on sleep latency (the time take to fall asleep), sleep duration, the quality of sleep, and daytime fatigue, over a period of 28 days. 409 people were enrolled in the study and analysis of the results found an improvement from both medicines with a reduction in latency time (37.3 minutes for the combination versus 38.2 minutes for valerian) and increase in sleep duration (2.2 hours for the combination versus 2 hours for valerian). The primary difference between the 2 interventions appeared to be that the homeopathic combination resulted in less daytime fatigue than valerian- 49% versus 32%.
130. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2004, Feb, 56, 2, 189-97. In this well-controlled trial, where the practitioners, trial subjects and data analysts were all blinded to the group assignments until the end of the data collection period, individualised homeopathic prescriptions were compared to placebo in 79 people suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (as determined by the Oxford criteria for CFS). The trial was carried out over a 6 month period with monthly observations used to determine clinical progress according to the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) as a primary measure and the Fatigue Impact Scale and Functional Limitations Profile as secondary measures. On the primary MFI measure, those using the individualised homeopathy had significant improvement over placebo.
131. Weiser M, Clasen BPE. Controlled Double Blind study of a Homoeopathic Sinusitis Medication. Biological Therapy, 1995, 13, 1, 4- 11. In a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial, 155 people suffering from sinusitis were given either a placebo or a homoeopathic combination (Heel Euphorbium compositum). Subjective responses showed a greater improvement in those using the homoeopathic combination than those given placebo.
132. Weisser M, Strosser W, Klein P. Homeopathic vs Conventional Treatment of Vertigo. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 1998, Aug, 124, 8, 879-885. A study group of 119 people suffering from vertigo were treated either with betahistine hydrochloride (acting as an active control, commonly prescribed by medical authorities for this condition) or a homoeopathic complex. Both of the interventions were equally successful in relieving vertigo.
133. Weiser M, Gegenheimer LH, Klein P. A Randomised Equivalence Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray with Cromolyn Sodium Spray in the Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, 1999, 6, 142-148. In this trial, 146 people suffering from hay fever were treated with either Luffa comp.-Heel Nasal Spray (a homoeopathic combination product) or with Cromolyn Sodium Spray (a pharmaceutical drug commonly prescribed for hay fever). The treatment outcomes were measured according to a quality of life scale and both medicines provided the same level of remission of the condition, which was rapid and persistent.
134. Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, Melzer J. Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomised, double-blind study. Rheumatol Int. 2007 Apr;27(6):585-91. Using a double-blind protocol, 204 people suffering from radiologically confirmed and symptomatically active osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to receive either topical arnica or topical ibuprofen to be applied to the area where the condition was active. The success or failure of the treatments was assessed according to functional ability of the affected part and pain intensity in this area after 21 days of continuous treatment. Assessment of the results at the end of this period found that topical arnica was as successful as topical ibuprofen for the management of osteoarthritis.
135. Wiesenauer M, Haussler S, Gaus W. Pollinosis therapy with Galphimia glauca. Fortschritte der Medezin, 1983, 101, 17, 811-814. Using a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre design in this trial, 86 people suffering from hay fever were treated for 5 and a half weeks with either homeopathic Galphimia glauca 4X or placebo. Therapeutic success was seen in 83% of those using the Galphimia and 47% of those using placebo.
136. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Haussler S. Treatment of Pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Allergologie, 1990, 10, 359-363. 54 practitioners treated 201 people suffering from hay fever either with placebo or homeopathic Galphimia glauca. Assessment at the end of the 5 week treatment period found that nasal symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 46% of those using placebo and eye symptoms were cured or significantly improved in 77% of subjects using Galphimia versus 51% of those using placebo.
137. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W. Proof of the Effectiveness of a Homeopathic Preparation in Chronic Polyarthritis. Erzten Akt Rheumatol, 1991, 16, 1-9. In this randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 111 people being treated by 6 general practitioners for rheumatoid arthritis were given either placebo or a combination of homeopathic Berberis, Bryonia, Ledum, Nux vomica and Ledum. Using pain, stiffness, inflammatory signs, fatigue and a functional index to determine clinical outcomes, at the end of the 12 week treatment period it was found that the homeopathic combination provided superior results to those of placebo.
138. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients. BMC Public Health. 2005 Nov, 3, 5, 115. In this study, 3981 patients being treated in private homeopathic medical clinics in Germany and Switzerland were assessed for the effectiveness of their homeopathic treatment over a 2 year period. When compared to baseline assessments taken immediately before treatment had begun, the adults in the study experienced a reduction in disease severity of 52% and children by 64%.
139. Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, Roll S, Vance W, Wegscheider K, Willich SN. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun;13(2):79-86. This cohort study, carried out in Germany, examined the outcomes of homeopathic treatment compared to the orthodox medical treatment of 493 people suffering from a range of chronic illnesses including headache, lower back pain, insomnia, depression, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. The patients’ assessments, taken at 6 months and 12 months from the beginning of the treatment, found that homeopathy provided a greater level of improvement in their illnesses than orthodox medical intervention. This difference appeared to be more pronounced in children than in adults. In regard to the cost of each type of therapy, this study showed these costs to be similar to each other.
140. Witt CM, Ludtke R, Mengler N, Willich SN. How healthy are Chronically Ill Patients after Eight years of Homeopathic Treatment? - Results from a long term observational study. BMC Public Health 2008, 8:413. German academic and researcher Professor Claudia Witt has been responsible for a number of excellent papers on homeopathy and in this, she and co-workers drew data from 103 Swiss and German homeopathic medicine clinics in an effort to determine the level of change to the health status of patients over periods of 2 and 8 years, as a result of homeopathic intervention, over these times. Data was collected from 3709 patients who were asked to assess the level of change to the severity of their medical complaints and quality of life, at the time of first consultation, at 2 years, and at 8 years from that point. The data from adults and children were assessed separately and the former experienced an average reduction in disease severity from 6.2 at baseline to 2.9 at 2 years to 2.2 at 8 years. For children, a reduction from a baseline disease severity of 6.1 to 2.1 at 2 years was noted and then to 1.7 at 8 years. Physical and mental quality of life scores for both groups increased significantly over the study period and interestingly, researchers found that, within the confines of this study, the younger the patient and the more severe the medical condition, the better the potential for the therapeutic success of homeopathy.
141. Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, Heger M. Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003 Oct;10(5):242-7. In this trial homeopathic Arnica D12 (12X) was compared to placebo, to determine its effect on the size and pain of bruising after surgery. Arnica was used once prior to surgery and then 3 times a day for 2 weeks after surgery. 60 people participated in the trial and on completion it was found that Arnica reduced the size of the bruising by 76% compared to 72% for placebo and pain was reduced by 43% from arnica and by 28% from the placebo.
142. Yakir M, Kreitler S, et al. Homoeopathic Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome. British Homoeopathic Journal, July, 1995, 84, 182-183. In a double blind randomised placebo controlled trial carried out in an Israeli hospital, 19 women suffering from clinically diagnosed PMS were treated with individualised homoeopathy or placebo. The homoeopathic treatment provided significant improvement over placebo.
143. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z. Effects of Homeopathic Treatment in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome: a Pilot Study. British Homoeopathic Journal, 2001, 90, 148-153. 20 women suffering from PMS were enrolled into this randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to receive one of 5 symptomatically selected homeopathic remedies, or placebo. Using daily menstrual distress scores before and at the end of the trial, improvement greater than 30% was experienced by 90% of those using the homeopathic medicine and 37.5% of those using the placebo.
144. Zambrano OC. The Effects of a Complex Homoeopathic Preparation on Aerobic Resistance, Aerobic Capacity, Strength and Flexibility. Biomedical Therapy, 2000, 18, 1, 172- 175. 25 people were assessed before and after exercise for the effects of a homoeopathic combination (Rendimax) on their cellular oxygenation rate, lactate accumulation, and recovery time after exercise. These were compared with the same parameters for 25 people who had undergone the same exercise regime without the use of this medication. Those using the homoeopathic combination exhibited improvement in all parameters measured.
145. Zell J, Connert WG, Mau J, Feuerstake G. Treatment of Acute Sprains of the Ankle. Biological Therapy, 7, 1, 1989, 106. Under double blind placebo controlled trial conditions, patients using an ointment containing homoeopathic ingredients for soft tissue injury found significant relief with the medicine when compared to the effects of placebo.
146. Naudé DF, Stephanie Couchman IM, Maharaj A. Chronic primary insomnia: efficacy of homeopathic simillimum. Homeopathy. 2010 Jan;99(1):63-8. This study was done by a team from the Department of Homoeopathy at South Africa’s Durban University of Technology, and was focused on determining the effects of constitutional homeopathic treatment for insomnia, when compared to a placebo control. 30 people diagnosed with primary insomnia were randomly selected to receive either prescribed homeopathic therapy for 6 weeks or a placebo “prescribed” using the same process. The subjects were assessed at each of the 3 consultations conducted through the treatment process with reference to a sleep diary and sleep impairment index. An analysis of the outcomes showed that sleep duration, sleep quality and all of the associated parameters measured improved significantly under homeopathic treatment, when compared to that using the placebo control.
147. Bracho G, Varela E, Fernández R, Ordaz B, Marzoa N, Menéndez J, García L, Gilling E, Leyva R, Rufín R, de la Torre R, Solis RL, Batista N, Borrero R, Campa C. Large-scale application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control. Homeopathy. 2010 Jul;99(3):156-66. The use of homeopathically prepared materials as an alternative to conventional vaccination has attracted intense criticism and this Cuban study went some way towards addressing these criticisms. It was conducted in three provinces in Cuba where leptospirosis is endemic and active. As a means of attempting to control outbreaks, 2.3 million people were inoculated with a homeopathically prepared version of 4 of the strains of causative organisms endemic to the areas at that time, potentised to 200C. The data from post-innoculation surveillance were used to measure the impact of the intervention by comparing these outcomes with historical trend, forecast models for the regions and data from non-intervention areas. An analysis of these data showed that the use of the homeopathically prepared organisms was associated with a large reduction of disease incidence and relative control of the epidemic.
148. Bell IR, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M, Baldwin CM, Bootzin RR. Effects of homeopathic medicines on polysomnographic sleep of young adults with histories of coffee-related insomnia. Sleep Med. 2011 May;12(5):505-11. Iris Bell and colleagues from the University of Arizona College of Medicine performed this trial to determine the effects of homeopathically prepared Coffea cruda 30C or Nux vomica 30C on insomnia. 54 subjects with a history of either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity (but not both) and a history of coffee-induced insomnia were given either of these two medicines (administered double blind) or a placebo (administered single blind) and monitored via polysomnography, self-assessed sleep diaries, sleep quality index scales and mood state scales, for a period of 1 month. An analysis of the results showed an association between the test substances and a significant improvement in several key areas of measurement, when compared to the control.
149. Goossens M, Laekeman G, Aertgeerts B, Buntinx F. Evaluation of the quality of life after individualized homeopathic treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis. A prospective, open, non-comparative study. Homeopathy. 2009 Jan;98(1):11-6. This uncontrolled study from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium builds on previous in vitro and in vivo work to determine the effects of homeopathically potentised substances on seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), and more specifically in this case, quality of life. 46 people suffering with medically diagnosed SAR were treated by homeopathic physicians with constitutional homeopathy. The subjects completed a rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life (RQLQ) form at baseline and at three and four weeks from this point. An assessment of all of the outcomes showed a reduction in the RQLQ of 3.4 at baseline to 1.97 at 3 weeks and 1.6 at 4 weeks, indicating an improvement in quality of life as it relates to their SAR symptoms.
150. Glatthaar-Saalmüller B. In vitro evaluation of the antiviral effects of the homeopathic preparation Gripp-Heel on selected respiratory viruses. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;85(11):1084-90. This Austrian study was carried out at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna and sought to determine the in vitro effects of a combination of homeopathically prepared substances on a panel of viruses commonly associated with human illness. The effects of the combination were compared to several positive controls (acyclovir, ribavirin and amantadine hydrochloride) and assessment of the effects was done by standard viral viability tests (plaque reduction assay, cytopathogenic assays, virus titrations, analysis of the viral proteins in virus-specific enzyme immunoassays, and haemagglutination tests). On analysis of the results a significant association was shown between the homeopathic combination and a reduction in the activity or viability of Human herpesvirus 1, Human adenovirus C serotype 5, Influenza A virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus 3, Human rhinovirus B serotype 14, and Human coxsackievirus serotype A9.
151. Beringhs-Bueno A, Moreira HM, D´Almeida V, Pascalicchio AAE. Mercury Intoxication: High Dilution as Mercury’s Chelating Agent. Int J High Dilution Research, 5, 16 (2006), 3-6. In this study, carried out at Brazil’s Instituto de Saude, researchers set out to evaluate the effect of homeopathically prepared mercury on mercury elimination in humans. 52 people suffering from mercury intoxication were randomly assigned to receive the homeopathically prepared mercury (Merc sol) or a placebo. Quality of life, assessments of mercury in blood, urine and hair were made at 30 and 60 days. These compared to assessments from the same sources made at the beginning of the study. When compared to controls, after analysing the results it was found that those people received the Merc sol had significant decreases in mercury in hair.
152. Teut M, Ludtke R, Schnabel K, Willich SN, Witt CM. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period. BMC Geriatrics, 2010 Feb 22;10(1):10. This was a cohort study performed to determine the benefit or otherwise of homeopathic interventions for a range of medical complaints experienced by people over the age of 70 years consulting homeopathic medicine physicians in clinics in Germany and Switzerland. A total of 3981 people were enrolled in the study and of these, 83 people took part in a subgroup analysis and nearly all of them were being treated for a chronic illness with an average duration of 11.5 years. Assessments were done using the severity of the complaint, the amount of medication used for the condition, the quality of life (QPOL) as noted by the patient and severity as noted by the physician, at baseline and over 3, 12 and 24 months. A significant reduction in severity of the complaint was noted by both patients and physicians as a result of homeopathic therapy interventions.
153. Möllinger H, Schneider R, Löffel M, Walach H. A double-blind, randomized, homeopathic pathogenetic trial with healthy persons: comparing two high potencies. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004 Oct;11(5):274-80. Scientists at the Sokrates Health Centre in Switzerland performed this blinded trial to determine the pathogenetic effects of 2 homeopathically prepared remedies and a placebo in an effort to determine the similarity between the pathogenetic effects seen for the remedies in this trial and the generally accepted proving symptoms for these remedies. A group of 21 healthy homeopathic medicine practitioners were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups to receive homeopathically potentised Calendula officionalis, Ferrum muriaticum or a placebo and their symptoms recorded daily. Both remedy groups exhibited more symptoms than the placebo group and the majority of the symptoms exhibited were consistent with the traditionally accepted proving symptoms for Calendula.
154. Möllinger H, Schneider R, Walach H. Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce specific symptoms different from placebo. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Apr;16(2):105-10. This study, carried out at the University of Osnabrück in Germany, builds on previous work done in the area of pathogenetic trials conducted on homeopathically prepared substances. In this work, researchers compared the pathogenetic effects with Natrum muriaticum 30C and Arsenicum album 30C with placebo. Several other groups doing similar work have then gone on to contrast the pathogenetic symptoms produced by the test substances with those generally accepted as the traditional proving symptoms for these homeopathic remedies, but this was not the objective in this case. On analysis of the results in this instance, it was found that the active substances were associated with remedy-specific symptoms that differed significantly overall and differed from those associated with the placebo.
155. Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic low back pain: A prospective observational study with 2 years' follow-up. Clin J Pain. 2009 May;25(4):334-9. Claudia Witt has done some excellent work in the area of homeopathic research and this adds to an already impressive tally. In this study, Witt and colleagues from the Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany, evaluated what effects, if any, constitutionally prescribed homeopathy had on the health outcomes for people suffering from chronic low back pain. 129 adults suffering from medically diagnosed chronic low back pain for an average duration of 9.6 years were treated by homeopathic physicians who prescribed medicines according to their individual symptoms. Their progress was followed for 2 years and over this time an average of 6.8 different medicines were prescribed. On analysis of the symptom severity and quality of life changes over the period of observation, it was shown that the treatment was associated with marked and sustained improvement in both parameters. In addition, the use of homeopathic therapy was associated with a significant decline in the use of conventional treatment and health services.
156. Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Willich SN. Homeopathic treatment of patients with dysmenorrhea: a prospective observational study with 2 years follow-up. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Oct;280(4):603-11. In more good work from the Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany, Claudia Witt and colleagues conducted a multi-centre observational study to determine what effects, if any, constitutional homeopathic prescribing had on women suffering from dysmenorrhoea. 128 women who’d been medically diagnosed with dysmenorrhoea and had had this condition for an average of 11.6 years, were treated by 57 separate physicians with an average of 7.5 different prescriptions. Using complaint severity and quality of life as outcome measures, this treatment was associated with significant improvements in both areas. In addition, the use of other health services was reduced, but there was little impact on the use of conventional medications.
157. Relton C, Weatherley-Jones E. Homeopathy service in a National Health Service community menopause clinic: audit of clinical outcomes. J Br Menopause Soc. 2005 Jun;11(2):72-3. In this study, an audit was performed to determine the outcomes of individualised homeopathic treatment for menopause in a National Health Service community menopause clinic in Sheffield in the UK. Patient-assessed outcomes from 2001 to 2003 were evaluated and were found to be consistent with the notion that this service was associated with an overall improvement in the condition. In particular, an improvement in headaches, flushing, fatigue and emotional and psychological symptoms were noted.
158. Pinto S, Rao AV, Rao A. Lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte antioxidants and plasma antioxidants in osteoarthritis before and after homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2008 Oct;97(4):185-9. In this study, carried out at the Muller Medical College, in South Karnataka, India, scientists attempted to evaluate the effects of constitutional homeopathic treatment on oxidative stress responses in 47 people suffering from osteoarthritis. Measurements before and after treatment were made of erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte antioxidants glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and plasma antioxidants ceruloplasmin, glutathione-S-transferase, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity. After comparing the levels of these parameters from baseline with those taken after homeopathic treatment, and contrasting these values taken from normal controls, an association between the homeopathic therapy and a reduction but not complete normalisation of the oxidative stress associated with osteoarthritis was found.
159. Relton C, Smith C, Raw J, Walters C, Adebajo AO, Thomas KJ, Young TA. Healthcare provided by a homeopath as an adjunct to usual care for Fibromyalgia (FMS): results of a pilot randomised controlled trial. Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):77-82. This University of Leeds study was designed to answer two questions; whether homeopathic plus conventional care versus conventional care alone for Fibromyalgia syndrome could be assessed using a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) design, and whether homeopathic care as an adjunct to conventional care provided any extra benefit. Using a pragmatic parallel group RCT design and the total score from the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) at 22 weeks from baseline as the primary measure, the outcomes of 20 people receiving constitutional homeopathic plus conventional care for their Fibromyalgia were compared with 16 people receiving conventional care alone. When assessed against conventional care, homeopathic plus conventional care was associated with significantly greater mean reduction in the FIQ score.
160. Malicka M, Zakrzewska A, Gryczyńska D. Homeopathic therapy in recurrent respiratory diseases in childhood. New Medicine, 3. 2006, 74-78. This Polish study was carried out to determine what effect, if any, a combination of homeopathically potentised ingredients had on children suffering from recurrent respiratory infections, in comparison with the outcomes in children given conventional treatment for these conditions (controls). Using a parent-assessed monitoring protocol to measure the incidence of recurrent respiratory disease over a 3 month period, it was shown that the use of the homeopathic combination product was associated with an overall reduction in the recurrence of respiratory infection compared to both baseline and controls.
161. Mousavi F, Mojaver YN, Asadzadeh M, Mirzazadeh M. Homeopathic treatment of minor aphthous ulcer: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):137-41. Scientists at Iran’s Tehran University of Medical Sciences investigated the notion that constitutional homeopathy provided a positive outcome in sufferers of minor aphthous ulceration. 100 people suffering from this condition were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, or two doses of a 6C homeopathic medicine as determined by traditional homeopathic repertorisation, separated by a 12 hour period. Their progress was then monitored for 6 days, with data taken at days 4 and 6. Using an assessment based on pain intensity and ulcer size, measurements taken at both data points confirmed the notion that constitutionally prescribed homeopathic therapy was associated with a statistically significant reduction in both of the parameters measured
162. Waisse-Priven S, Jurj G, Lima Thomaz LC, Tierno SA, Filho WL, Sos A, de Souza MF. Individualized homeopathic treatment of dermatological complaints in a public outpatient clinic. Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):149-53. Brazilian researchers carried out this work to investigate the outcomes associated with the use of constitutional homeopathy in people suffering from dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and chronic urticaria. The homeopathic medicines were prescribed by a team of trained homeopathic physicians who followed the progress of the participants for at least 3 months. 33 people completed the study and on conclusion it was found that 59% of the study participants had a positive outcome (this consisting of a cure or a significant level of relief), 37% of the original cohort dropped out and 4% experienced no relief.
163. Witt CM, Ludtke R. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders 2009 Jul 27;9:7. In yet more work carried out by Claudia Witt and colleagues from the Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany, this multi-centre observational study was done to evaluate the outcomes provided by homeopathic treatment for 134 people suffering from sinusitis. The average duration for sinusitis suffered by this cohort was 10 years and most of these people had had prior treatment for the condition with conventional medicine. The trial participants were monitored for complaint severity and quality of life every 3 months for 2 years from baseline, and again at 8 years. On analysis of these observations it was apparent that the homeopathic treatment was associated with improvements in quality of life and a reduction in the complaint severity of sinusitis, and the these improvements persisted for at least 8 years.
164. Heilmann A. A Combination Injection Preparation as a Prophylactic for Flu and Common Colds. Biological Therapy, 7, 4, 1994, 249-253. In this German study, 120 healthy individuals were injected with saline or a proprietary combination of homeopathically prepared ingredients, and their propensity to develop a cold or flu monitored twice weekly for a period of 8 weeks. They were also monitored for symptom severity and various hematological parameters relevant to viral infections. After the results had been compiled and assessed, it was found that, when compared to the saline control, the use of the homeopathic combination product was associated with a reduced duration of illness and a reduction in 11 of the 16 disease characteristics nominated for assessment.
165. Harkin C. Effect of Homeopathic calcium on Bone Density. Homeopathic Links, Spring, 2008, 21. 44-49. This was an uncontrolled pilot study carried out to determine the effects of 3 different homeopathically prepared calcium remedies in people suffering from osteoporosis. 15 people with medically diagnosed osteoporosis were prescribed Calc carb 30C, or Calc fluor 30C or Calc phos 30C, based on the similarity of the patients’ symptoms with the symptoms seen in the homeopathic proving of the remedies. Bone density was assessed by ultrasonometry at baseline and after 12 months treatment. An analysis of the results showed that 11 of the 15 participants experienced an increase in bone density.
166. Gundimeda RM. Herniated Lumbar Disc. Homoeopathic Links, Winter, 2008, 21, 217-220. In this study, 20 people diagnosed via MRI with disc herniation were advised to undergo surgery by a neurosurgeon. Instead, these people chose to pursue constitutional homeopathic management. The process and outcomes are described and show that after 4 years of treatment and patient assessment according to a symptom- based visual analogue scale, the use of prescribed homeopathic medicine was associated with 76-99% relief for 7 people, 51-75% relief for 2 people, 26-50% relief for 10 people and 0-25% relief for 1 person.
167. Goossens M, Laekeman G, Aertgeerts B, Buntinx F, Dandois M, Scheepers L, Smout JL, van Wassenhoven M, Linmans J, Doeuvre E. Evaluation of the quality of life after individualized homeopathic treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis. A prospective, open, non-comparative study. Homeopathy. 2009 Jan;98(1):11-6. This Belgian study was conducted to determine the effectiveness or otherwise of constitutional homeopathic intervention for seasonal allergic rhinitis. 46 people suffering from this condition were prescribed homeopathic treatment by one of seven homeopathic physicians based on their individual symptoms and assessed using the Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and again 3 and 4 weeks later. A physicians’ assessment was also carried out at 4 weeks. On analysis of the results it was found that the average patient-assessed level of symptom severity had fallen significantly and the physician’s assessment showed that 4% of patients were cured, 44% were much better, 25% were better, 4% a little better, 9% unchanged and 4% were worse.
168. Cardigno P. Homeopathy for the treatment of menstrual irregularities: a case series. Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):97-106. In this Italian study, results from women treated with individualised homeopathy for amenorrhoea and oligo-amenorrhoea were compiled to determine whether or not this form of intervention could be shown to provide any benefits. Data from 18 consecutive patients with these conditions over an average treatment period of 21 months were collected. From this it was found that constitutional homeopathic treatment was associated with an increase in the average frequency of spontaneous menstrual cycles per year from 4.32 before treatment to 9.6 cycles per year by the end of treatment period.
169. Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Willich SN. Homeopathic treatment of patients with psoriasis--a prospective observational study with 2 years follow-up. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 May;23(5):538-43. From Claudia Witt and colleagues of the Charité University Medical Center in Germany comes another observational study of the use of constitutionally prescribed homeopathic therapy, this time aimed at the sufferers of psoriasis. 82 people diagnosed with psoriasis, of an average duration of 14.7 years, were treated by 45 individual homeopathic physicians, using an average of 6 different homeopathic prescriptions. Using symptom severity and quality of life to assess their progress, patients were monitored over 2 years and on analysis of the results recorded a statistically significant association was found between the use of individualised homeopathy and a marked improvement in the parameters measured.
170. Bordet MF, Colas A, Marijnen P, Masson J, Trichard M. Treating hot flushes in menopausal women with homeopathic treatment--results of an observational study. Homeopathy. 2008 Jan;97(1):10-5. In this large multi-national observational study funded by homeopathic medicine manufacturer Boiron, researchers set out to document and analyse the effect of constitutionally prescribed homeopathy on menopausal hot flushes. Data was assembled from 438 women suffering from this complaint who were treated by 99 different homeopathic physicians across 8 countries. On analysis, 90% of the women who were treated in this manner reported a complete amelioration or significant reduction in their symptoms, and of these, the majority experienced this change within 15 days of beginning the treatment
171. Schneider C, Schneider B, Hanisch J, van Haselen R. The role of a homoeopathic preparation compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of injuries: an observational cohort study. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):22-7. This work was carried out to compare the effects of a proprietary mixture of homeopathically potentised materials with conventional therapy for a range of injuries, predominantly acute injuries such as muscular sprains, strains and bruising. 69 people suffering from these types of complaints were treated with the homeopathic mixture and 64 people with similar injuries were treated using conventional therapy. Data from both groups were assessed according to the numbers of people who experienced complete resolution of the principal complaint by the end of the trial period. This was achieved by 41 people (59.4%) who’d been given the homeopathic mixture and 37 people (57.8) from the group receiving conventional treatment.
172. Rostock M, Naumann J, Guethlin C, Guenther L, Bartsch HH, Walach H. Classical homeopathy in the treatment of cancer patients--a prospective observational study of two independent cohorts. BMC Cancer. 2011 Jan 17; 11:19. This observational study carried out at the Albert Ludwig's University in Freiburg, Germany, was designed to assess the potential inherent in constitutional homeopathy for the treatment of cancer, with particular reference to quality of life. People receiving conventional care for cancer were matched for demography, tumor type and previous therapies, to people receiving homeopathic care, and monitored for 12 months. Measurements were made at 3 and 12 months for quality of life, fatigue, anxiety and depression. 639 people were originally enrolled in the study and while the numbers of fully matched pairs that made it to the end of the study were probably insufficient to be statistically reliable, there was a significant trend towards an improvement in the quality of life at both 3 and 12 months in the group receiving homeopathic compared to conventional treatment but little difference between the two groups in perceived fatigue, anxiety or depression.
173. Nayak C, Singh V, Singh K, Singh H, Obera P, Roja V, Padmanabhan M, Prasad S, Arya MD, Mohanan PG, Singh O, John MD, Singh NBK, Bhagat R, Ramteke S. A multi-centric open clinical trial to evaluate the usefulness of 13 predefined homeopathic medicines in the management of acute rhinitis in children. Int J High Dilution Res 2010; 9(30): 30-42. This uncontrolled trial was carried out under the auspices of India’s Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy and was done to confirm the utility of homeopathic management for acute rhinitis. 638 six month to fifteen year old children suffering from clinically confirmed acute rhinitis were given one of thirteen homeopathic medicines that had been nosologically selected on the basis of the particular symptoms for the condition. The medicines were prescribed in 6C potency, repeated as required, the medicine changed when warranted, and the response monitored for 7 days. The medicines most frequently prescribed were Nux vomica, Mercurius sol. and Belladonna. On analysis of the results a significant change in the score from the baseline (p<0.05) was observed.
174. Bell IR, Brooks AJ, Howerter A, Jackson N, Schwartz GE. Short-term effects of repeated olfactory administration of homeopathic Sulphur or Pulsatilla on electroencephalographic alpha power in healthy young adults. Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):203-11. Iris Bell and colleagues from the University of Arizona explored encephalograms as a means of registering a remedy and potency specific response to homeopathic medicines. To do this they enrolled college psychology course student volunteers who’d been screened for their homeopathic constitutional type (via the Homeopathic Constitutional Type Questionnaire or CTQ) and gave them 4 different succussion levels of 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies of the indicated remedy (in this case either Sulphur or Pulsatilla) , one potency per week, or one of two controls, in a randomly assigned order. Remedies were given by inhalation via a double blinded protocol for three weeks and the subjects were assessed using relative EEG power (alpha 1 8-10 Hz; alpha 2 10-12 Hz) averaged over 19 electrode sites. An analysis of the results revealed significant main effects for remedy type (Sulphur >Pulsatilla) in both alpha bands, controlling for gender, baseline resting EEG alpha, and control responses. Additional analyses showed significant nonlinear interactions between dilution and time (weekly session) in alpha 2 for both remedies and alpha 1 for Sulphur.
175. Gründling C, Schimetta W, Frass M. Real-life effect of classical homeopathy in the treatment of allergies: A multicenter prospective observational study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2012 Jan; 124 (1-2):11-7. This Austrian study builds on previous work seeking to determine the outcomes of individualised homeopathic therapy, and in this case, therapy for people suffering from allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma or neurodermatitis. 40 people suffering from this illness were treated using individualised homeopathy in one of nine separate Austrian clinics by general practitioners trained in homeopathy. An assessment of the condition was done at baseline and after treatment by a visual analogue scale. On analysis a statistically significant association was shown between the homeopathic intervention and a discontuance of conventional medicine in 62% of participants and a dose reduction in at least one conventional medicine in 38% of participants. No side effects were reported during treatment.
176. Ramteke S, Kaushik S, Sarkar S, Mandal NR, Mohanan PG, Singh JR, Biswas S, Mathew G. Homeopathy in chronic sinusitis: a prospective multi-centric observational study. Homeopathy. 2012 Apr;101(2):84-91. This study was conducted under the auspices of India’s Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy and sought to assess the benefit or otherwise in chronic sinusitis of 13 predefined homeopathically prepared materials. 550 people with radiologically confirmed chronic sinusitis were given one of thirteen homeopathically prepared materials based on their individual symptoms and monitored at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Assessment was by radiology and the chronic sinusitis assessment score. On analysis a statistically significant association was found between the homeopathic therapy and a reduction in both the radiological evidence of the condition and the chronic sinusitis assessment score. The most frequently prescribed homeopathically prepared materials were Silica, Calc carb, Lycopodium, Phosphorous and Kali iod.
177. Kundu T, Shaikh A, Kutty A, Nalvade A, Kulkarni S, Kulkarni R, Ghosh K. Homeopathic medicines substantially reduce the need for clotting factor concentrates in haemophilia patients: results of a blinded placebo controlled cross over trial. Homeopathy. 2012 Jan;101(1):38-43. This Indian study looked at the effects of individualised homeopathic management for people suffering from haemophilia. 28 people suffering from this condition were treated with either conventional protocols and placebo control, or conventional protocols and individualised homeopathy, for 12 months, after which the interventions were switched between the two groups. An analysis of the results was done by independent experts who were blinded to the interventions. The analysis was based on the frequency of bleeding, extent of bleeding, blood products consumed, pain scores and general wellbeing. When compared to controls a strong association was seen between the homeopathic intervention and improvements in all of these parameters. Interestingly, plasma levels of clotting factors did not change. Arnica, Ledum palustre, Magnesium phosphorica and Hypericum were found most useful for pain while Arnica, Hamamelis, Millefolium, were useful in acute bleeding. Calcarea fluorica was found to be of greatest help with haemophilic synovitis. Millefolium was effective for epistaxis. Most patients had haemophilic arthritis of one or more joints. Constitutional remedies like Causticum, Calcarea carbonica and Hepar sulphuris and Lachesis were found useful.
178. Eizayaga JE, Eizayaga JI. Prospective observational study of 42 patients with atopic dermatitis treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy. 2012 Jan;101(1):21-7. Researchers at the Universidad Maimónides in Argentina set about evaluating the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic treatment for atopic dermatitis in the University outpatient clinic and the clinic of the treating physician. Patients with medically diagnosed atopic dermatitis were assessed for Rajka and Langeland's score and a set of four Visual Analogue Scales, these evaluating disease severity, itch, general and psychological wellbeing as well as quality of sleep. 26 people with the condition completed the study and after the results were compared with the baseline measurements, it was shown that individualised homeopathic therapy was associated with a statistically significant reduction in these parameters. Sulphur accounted for 60% of cases with good treatment response but aggravations were recorded after nearly 30% of prescriptions.
179. Sinha MN, Siddiqui VA, Nayak C, Singh V, Dixit R, Dewan D, Mishra A. Randomized controlled pilot study to compare Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media. Homeopathy. 2012 Jan;101(1):5-12. This study, carried out by workers from the Regional Research Institute of Homeopathy in Jaipur, India, sought to contrast the comparative benefits of homeopathy and conventional therapy for acute otitis media. 80 children suffering from this condition were randomly assigned to receive either homeopathic therapy using one of a number of clinically indicated remedies in fifty millesimal potency, or conventional therapy consisting of analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The clinical progress outcomes were monitored over 21 days using the Acute Otitis Media-Severity of Symptoms (AOM-SOS) Scale and Tympanic Membrane Examination. On analysis, there were no significant differences between groups for the main outcome. Symptomatic improvement was quicker in the group given homeopathic therapy, and there was a large difference in antibiotic requirements, favouring homeopathy. The most commonly prescribed homeopathic medicines were Pulsatilla nigricans, Mercurius solubilis, Silicea, Chamomilla, Lycopodium clavatum & Sulphur. These medicines were useful in treatment of (n = 36) 85% of patients.
180. Gründling C, Schimetta W, Frass M. Real-life effect of classical homeopathy in the treatment of allergies: A multicenter prospective observational study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2012 Jan;124(1-2):11-7. This Austrian observational study was designed to assess the effects of individualised homeopathic therapy on conventional medicine use by people suffering from allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and neurodermatitis and the efficacy of this form of therapy. 40 people suffering from these conditions were given individualised homeopathic therapy by general medical practitioners who specialised in this form of therapy from nine different test centres. Patients were assessed at baseline and again at 2-16 weeks via a questionnaire based on a visual analogue scale. At the end of the study, a statistically significant association was found between homeopathic therapy, an improvement in clinical signs and symptoms and a reduction in the use of conventional medicines.
181. Nayak C, Singh V, Singh K, Singh H, Gupta J, Lamba CD, Sharma A, Sharma B, Indira B, Bhuvaneshwari S, Bindra SK, Luxmi KS. Management of distress during climacteric years by homeopathic therapy. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Nov;17(11):1037-42. Researchers from India’s Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) carried out this study to investigate the effects of indivdualised homeopathic therapy on the FSH levels, blood lipid profile, signs and symptoms experienced by women suffering from menopause. Patients were enrolled from 6 CCRH outpatient clinics and received one dose of an individualised homeopathic medicine from homeopathic medical specialists in accordance with their experience of 15 predetermined menopause symptoms. These as well as their FSH and blood lipid profiles were assessed at baseline and again at 12 months from this point. An assessment of the results was made through statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon signed rank test on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), the result of which was a significant association between the therapeutic invention and relief from the menopausal symptoms that were assessed. A significant association was also found between the homeopathic therapy and improvements in the blood cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL profiles of the study subjects. The medicines found to be most frequently indicated and useful were Sepia, Lachesis, Calcarea carb, Lycopodium, and Sulphur.
For research studies on homoeopathy:
We are indebted to Robert Medhurst for researching and assembling this list of homoeopathy research.
See also the page on evidence for homoeopathy on the website of the Glasgow Faculty of Homoeopathy.